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Use Cases

Coated slanted gratings can be configured easily within VirtualLab. This use case explains the available options for the customization of slanted gratings.

By placing a rotated rectangular aperture behind input fields with different sizes, the PSF and MTF in the focal plane are investigated.

An imaging system consisting of a collimation objective and human eye is modeled, and by changing the illumination conditions, the cases with fully and partially illuminated apertures are investigated.

When a linearly polarized Gaussian beam is focused by a high-NA aspheric lens, the PSF in focal plane shows asymmetry due to vectorial effects.

An Offner system that consists of two concentric spherical mirrors is built up and its imaging property is investigated by using the non-sequential field tracing in VirtualLab.

For a folded waveguide-based imaging system, the multiple apertures effect, including in- and outcoupling gratings and pupil aperture, is shown to affect the PSF and MTF on image plane.

To evaluate the image quality of a near-to-eye display system, it is important to include the influence from the waveguide structure. In this example, both planar and curved waveguide are investigated.

Different slanted grating geometries are selected from literature, with varying slant angle, fill factor, and modulation depth, and the diffraction efficiencies are calculated with the Fourier modal method (FMM).

High-NA objective lenses are widely used in optical lithography, microscopy, etc. Consideration of the vectorial nature of light in the simulation of the focusing is therefore fundamental.

In VirtualLab, the variation of parameters of optical systems are freely customizable by using the programmable mode of the parameter run feature. In an example, the application of this programmable mode is presented.

The Fourier Modal Method (FMM) can be used to analyze grating efficiencies rigorously. VirtualLab allows rigorous efficiency analysis for single simulations as well as for parameter variations.

With the flexible channel control in VirtualLab Fusion, one can easily switch between sequential and non-sequential tracing, and can control the non-sequential tracing configuration.

High-power laser diodes often exhibit asymmetric divergence and astigmatism. Collimation of such a laser diode is investigated with both ray tracing and field tracing.

For the task of coupling light into a single-mode fiber, two commercially available lenses are selected, and their performance is evaluated using the overlap integral.

In VirtualLab Fusion, grating structures can be configured by using a stack. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on interfaces is explained.

In the VirtualLab’s Grating Package grating structures can be configured by using a stack. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on media is explained.

With the fast-physical-optics simulation technique in VirtualLab Fusion, conical refraction from a KGd crystal is demonstrated.

VirtualLab allows the specification of a graded-index lens in a very user friendly way. In addition such index modulated lenses can be analyzed by ray tracing as well as field tracing.

This Use Case shows how to construct a pyramid-like surface by using the programmable surface in VirtualLab Fusion.

A hybrid imaging system consisting of both refractive and diffractive lenses is analyzed, especially, with the undesired diffraction orders of the diffractive lens taken into account.

The parameter coupling feature of VirtualLab can be used to define the coupling of each parameter of an arbitrary optical setup, which helps create complex relations of these parameters.

VirtualLab provides multiple tools to implement your custom sources, components, detectors etc. For documentation of such customized object the snippet help can be used.

We present a customized detector which calculates the grating diffraction efficiencies over a user-defined incident-angle range, and also delivers the mean value and contrast of the efficiencies.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented.

Fourier modal method is applied for the rigorous evaluation of non-paraxial diffractive beam splitters, which are initially designed by using IFTA and thin-element approximation.

Two diffractive diffusers, with continuous or discrete phase, for generating a LightTrans trademark are designed, and their performance is investigated.

Designing of high-NA dot-projection system is of great practical use. In this example, a single phase plate for generating a 24,000 dots random pattern is designed.

With the user-friendly design tools in VirtualLab, a refractive beam shaper for shaping a fundamental Gaussian beam into top-hat profile is designed and analyzed.

The iterative Fourier transfrom algorithm (IFTA) in VirtualLab enables customized beam splitters design with high efficiency and flexibility.

When SLMs are often employed as programmable diffractive optical elements, the influence from the pixel gaps on the system performance is investigated.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented, particularly with the higher diffraction order taken into account.

With the perfectly matched layers (PMLs) technique, the interaction between a focused Gaussian beam and nanocylinders with varying diameters is investigated.

A silica-spaced etalon is build up and used to measure the sodium D lines, with the non-sequential field tracing technique in VirtualLab Fusion.

This document shows a programmable module that can export any kind of Harmonic Fields Set into ASCII files.

VirtualLab can export smooth and quantized interfaces, as well as mirror/prism/grating cells arrays into various file formats, e.g., STL and GDSII file format.

VirtualLab supports the export of optical components specified in the system into various CAD formats. This includes for example the export of lenses, prisms, mirror systems and other components into STL and in IGES format.

The propagation of an 5 fs pulse through seawater is studied in VirtualLab. The broadening of the pulse and the change in its temporal profile due to dispersion of the material are shown.

A laser diode with asymmetric divergence and astigmatism is first collimated and then focused. Evolution of the field in the focal region is investigated in detail.

The focusing process of a 10 fs pulse by using a high-NA parabolic mirror is modeled in VirtualLab, and both the spatial and temporal behaviors are investigated.

The variation of the focal length due to thermal lens effect and the changes of focal spot diameter are demonstrated with respect to the input laser power.

The analysis of the diffraction efficiencies of gratings is the typical modeling task with gratings. The efficiencies follow from the Rayleigh coefficients. Both quantities are given for each of the diffraction orders of a grating.

Non-sequential field tracing for the PSF calculation of Herrig Schiefspiegler Telescope, including double-pass between two mirrors, takes less than 10 seconds.

In high-NA focusing situations, e.g. with parabolic mirror, it is demonstrated that input fields with polarizations leads to different focal spots.

A two diffractive beam splitter system for high-NA pattern generation is designed with IFTA, and the system performance is investigated, especially with the non-paraxial splitter analyzed by using FMM.

Using laterally shifted modes is one possible strategy to mimic partial spatial coherence. In this tutorial we show you how to manipulate the positions of the source modes via programming.

With the scanning source in VirtualLab, we analyze the performance of an F-Theta lens, by measuring the focal spot position deviation and the spot size for different scan angles.

The scanning source in VirtualLab defines a multi-mode source that radiates into several pre-defined directions, which is of help in e.g. in a laser scanning system.

In this tutorial we explain the basics of working with the C# Module: one of the most flexible, most advanced programmable items in VirtualLab Fusion!

The Programmable Component is one of the most versatile programmable elements in VirtualLab. Follow this tutorial for instructions on a first contact with this feature!

In this tutorial we show how to work with the Programmable Detector, one of the most versatile customizable elements in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Function, using the example of a cylindrical lens.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Interface, using the example of a simple spherical surface.

This tutorial will give you the instructions you need to program your own sources in VirtualLab!

Discover how to create your own custom spectra via programming in VirtualLab Fusion with this in-depth tutorial on the topic, rounded up with a basic hands-on example.

A high-NA microscope for imaging of sub-wavelength grating is build up, and the influences from illumination with linear, radial, and azimuthal polarizations is investigated.

Modeling of a complete high-NA imaging system, with sub-wavelength gratings with different profiles as samples under test, is presented.

Modeling of a complete high-NA imaging system, with sub-wavelength gratings with varying period as samples under test, is presented.

VirtualLab Fusion allows to import optical systems with full 3D position information and glasses from Zemax files. The import enables a user friendly interface between the two software packages.

The ghost image effect in a collimation lens system is investigated, by checking the effect from the surface coating with the non-sequential tracing technique.

For a diffractive beam shaper used together with focusing lens, the influence from lens aberrations on the system performance is investigated.

VirtualLab’s Grating Toolbox enables the detailed analysis of grating structures. In this use case the investigation of the polarization state of the diffracted orders is discussed, which is enabled by the applied Fourier modal method (FMM).

As one important issue for near-eye display (NED) design, the propagation of light through waveguide structure with tailored in- and outcoupling gratings can be easily modeled with the help of region and channel concept in VirtualLab Fusion.

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is build up in VirtualLab, and it is demonstrated that how the tilt and shift of an optical elements may affect the interference pattern.

A Michelson interferometer with Xenon lamp source is modeled, with the spectral property, i.e. limited coherence length, of the source fully taken into account.

An image projection system is set up together with the panel-type source. Performance of the system is evaluated by observing the spot grid in both spatial and angular domains.

By using the non-sequential field tracing technique, several configurations of etalons, e.g. with non-parallel surfaces and curved surfaces, are analyzed.

VirtualLab provides a physical-optics modeling technique for light propagation through GRIN media, which includes fully electromagnetic information and runs as fast as ray tracing.

A fast approach for light propagation through GRIN medium, which includes the polarization crosstalk effect, is implemented, and its validity and advantages are shown in comparison with rigorous solver.

The imaging properties of microlens array with different lens shapes are investigated. Change of the focal spots with respect to aberration of input field is demonstrated.

A module is programmed to measure the FFT execution time for a quadratic field with different numbers of sampling points, in float and/or double precision.

Following simulation settings will be explained in more detail: Global accuracy (Field Tracing 2nd Generation) and non-sequential field/ray tracing.

By using the non-sequential tracing technique in VirtualLab, the ray tracing analysis of a glass plate is performed.

A complete wafer inspection system including high-NA focusing effect and light interaction with microstructures is modeled, and the formation of image is demonstrated.

With a low-coherence Xenon lamp source, a Michelson interferometer is build up for precise scanning of the surface profile of a given specimen.

In this example, we select one commercially available lens and show how to find the optimal working distance to obtain maximum fiber-coupling efficiency by using field tracing.

We demonstrate the design workflow for optimizing a rectangular grating for one specific incidence direction to obtain maximum efficiency for a specific diffraction order.

To ensure uniform multiple waveguide output channels, the outcoupling gratings are optimized, with their efficiencies calculated by the rigorous Fourier modal method.

A slanted grating optimized with the rigorous Fourier modal method to achieve high diffraction efficiency for the sake of incoupling into light guide structures.

We present the design of a fiber-coupling lens with conical surface, for the purpose of efficient light coupling into a single-mode fiber, using parametric optimization in VirtualLab Fusion.

A scanning system consisting a dual-axis galvanometer and an aspherial focusing lens is modeled, with the rotation of the mirrors taken into simulation as in the practical case.

With the scanning source in VirtualLab, we analyze the performance of an F-Theta lens, by measuring the focal spot position deviation and the spot size for different scan angles.

The conversion of polarization of a linearly polarized light in calcite crystal is demonstrated in VirtualLab.

Demonstration of polarizer effect in the focal region, with high-NA illumination.

Discover how to create your own custom spectra via programming in VirtualLab Fusion with this in-depth tutorial on the topic, rounded up with a basic hands-on example.

VirtualLab Fusion offers the option to define optical component by programmable elements. This use case explains the usage of code snippets for programmable light source, interface, function and medium.

This example shows how to use Programmable Pulse Spectrum to generate a chirped Gaussian pulse, with the pulse specification given in time domain.

Based on the fully vectorial electromagnetic field information, a Programmable Detector is done for the calculation of the degree of coherence.

Based on the full field information, and together with the Programmable Detector, several typically used merit functions in diffractive optics are realized in this example.

This example illustrate the access on field values in a Programmable Detector via source code, and it calculates the sum of all squared amplitudes on the optical axis including all field components.

A Programmable Detector is constructed for saving a light distribution (harmonic fields set) to the desired file path on the hard disk.

In this programming example we illustrate how to code a transmission function that imitates an opaque screen punctured by two round holes.

An example snippet is presented for defining a double slit function, with customizable slit width and distance in between.

This example shows how to realize an array of micro-lenses on a rectangular grid by using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab Fusion.

Gauging the accuracy of a given result is fundamental in science and engineering. In this use case we show you how to programme a module to compute the standard deviation between two fields.

This programmable module is designed to be applied to the sharp result of a designed structure, and it will round off the edges according to user-specified values.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Function which defines an arbitrary number of equidistant slits with an arbitrary width and distance.

A convex-plano single lens is analyzed by scanning over the radius of curvature and its thickness with the Programmable Parameter Run in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Interface. Although the sinusoidal surface is provided ready-made in the catalog, we show you how to code it for illustration purposes.

In the Settings the user can directly define a 2D-Array containing the wavelength-dependent transmittance values, or by loading another array or file by clicking on “Export/Import”.

A truncated cone structure is generated using the Programmable Interface, with its specifications (height, top/base diameter) as user-defined parameters.

Using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab Fusion, an anamorphic surface is programmed and especially with the surface gradient analytically given.

In this programming example we illustrate how to use the Programmable Function in VirtualLab to create a custom idealised component that performs like an axicon.

See how to create a radially and an azimuthally polarized source, experimenting in the process with the programming of light sources and the potential of the Combined Light Source feature.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup consisting of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating for Sodium doublet examination, is investigated.

A holographic volume grating is analyzed by using the Fourier modal method. Both the spectral and angular properties are presented.

With the iterative Fourier transfrom algorithm (IFTA) in VirtualLab, design of a phase-only beam shaper for generating a donut mode, with optical vortex phase distribution is presented.

Design of different types of cells arrays, which are used behind white light LED for generating customized patterns, are presented.

When a linearly polarized beam is focused by a high-NA lens, the focal spot shows asymmetry due to the relatively strong E(z) component.

A complex 2D exit pupil expander, which consist of both idealized and real gratings, is constructed and modeled, and the uniformity at the waveguide exit plane is presented.

The waveguide component allow to define an arbitrary set of grating regions per surface. Per grating region several parameters can be defined. The user can specify a set of selected orders for each grating region.

By using an idealized non-paraxial polarizer model, the interaction of a polarizer with incident wave from different angles is investigated, and the results are characterized by Stokes parameters.

The stress-induced birefringence in a YAG crystal is investigated, by examining the change of output field with respect to the strength of stresses.

VirtualLab enables the user to build up an optical system once and analyze it with different tracing techniques. This use case demonstrates how the non-sequential analysis of your setup can be performed.

With the region concept in VirtualLab, apertures with arbitrary shapes can be defined flexibly. Situations with fully and partially illuminated apertures are shown.

In a fiber-coupling optical setup, the coupling efficiency is analyzed with respect to different tolerance factors like the shift of the position of the fiber end and the tilt of lens.

The polarization-dependent properties of ultra-sparse dielectric nanowire grids are analyzed by using the Fourier modal method (FMM).

The focal length is an important parameter to evaluate an imaging system. By using the Focal Length Analyzer, the effective and back focal length of optical components can be obtained and used with parametric optimization.

Point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) are important optical quantities to evaluate the quality of an imaging system. In VirtualLab Fusion, PSF and MTF for an imaging system can be calculated fast and accurately.

Wavefront error is defined as the difference between the reference wavefront phase, which is a constant phase or spherical phase, and the detected wavefront phase of one optical system. This use case shows how to handle a wavefront error detector in VirtualLab Fusion.


We therefore introduce the concept of geometric and diffractive zones of fields. We describe and demonstrate design techniques for different applications of light shaping, including smooth and micro-structured surfaces, for different types of sources.

The Local Plane Interface Approximation (LPIA) algorithm, a free space propagation algorithm and the Fourier Modal Method (FMM) are all combined. We analyse the homogeneity of the spot-like illumination interference pattern at the focal plane, which should be accounted for in image processing.

Graded-index (GRIN) media are widely used for different situations. Modelling electromagnetic field propagation in GRIN media is of high importance for optical simulation and design. Based on the concept of fast physical optics, we develop a theory to efficiently propagate the field in GRIN media, including the effect of polarization cross-talk.

Graded-index (GRIN) media are widely used for different situations. Modelling electromagnetic field propagation in GRIN media is of high importance for optical simulation and design. Based on the concept of fast physical optics, we develop a theory to efficiently propagate the field in GRIN media, including the effect of polarization cross-talk.

No description available.

We emphasize on highly efficient solutions to Maxwell’s equations, based on 1) the paradigm shift of switching the main modeling domain from space to spatial frequency domain; 2) innovative Fourier transform concepts that minimize the field sampling parameters. We will present simulations of several typical modern laser systems based on fast physical optics modeling.

We discuss the implications of the modeling and the design of diffractive and refractive freeform surfaces in non-paraxial regions of the fields to shape the profile of a laser beam in its far field, its focus or any other region.

VirtualLab Fusion provides different approaches for non-sequential simulations through the entirety or part of an optical system. In non-sequential simulations with both ray and field tracing the user can control which light-propagation paths are to be considered.

In this talk the modeling of systems for femtosecond pulses is presented, including pulse compression and stretching by grating pairs, focusing by low and high NA systems, walk-off effects and second-harmonic generation (SHG) modeling.

VirtualLab Fusion supports light shapping by freeform surfaces, diffractive beam splitters and pattern generators, diffusers, and general arrays of micro-optical components, including, but not limited to, micro-lens arrays.

In modern optics, a huge variety of components with specific purposes made from different materials are employed. Birefringent materials are often used for manipulating light in difference aspects. Especially, by analysis in the spatial frequency domain, the effect from birefringence can be clearly revealed and, based on that, we develop a fast numerical algorithm to model light propagation through such components.

A diffractive or meta-lens can be modeled as local structures (e.g. local gratings) on a base interface. The rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM) is applied for the local micro-/nanostructures; then the phase modulations at each position can be collected to model the lens function.

Modern interferometer-based optical-metrology technologies play an important role in many applications, and often consist of multi-disciplinary components. We present a physical-optics- based simulation approach.

The Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm constitutes the backbone for fast physical optics modelling. In this talk we present the theory of the semi-analytical FFT alongside several examples to demonstrate the great potential of this approach.

In this talk we will discuss the modeling and design of laser systems along applications like beam delivery and scanning, speaking also about the peculiarities of including gratings, etalons, graded-index media and crystals in said systems.

The well-established ray-tracing concept of Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function, used traditionally to model the scattering of rays at micro-structured surfaces, serves as the inspiration for what we have called “bidirectional”, or B, operators: a physical-optics generalization that refers not only to the modelling of surface scattering, but of any component in an optical system.

Geometrical and physical optics tend to be presented as completely separate from each other, the links between the two tenuously acknowledged at best. However, when they are viewed for what they are it is evident that not only are they not separate, but that in fact the two types of behaviours very often coexist within the same system.

VirtualLab Fusion Documentation

This document describes how VirtualLab Fusion is installed and how it can be updated. Questions which might occur during installation are being answered.

VirtualLab Fusion 2nd Generation Technology Update (Build

In this document you will get a deep introduction into VirtualLab Fusion.


In this webinar, we show how to enable non-sequential tracing in VirtualLab and application use cases, which get large benefits from it.

White Papers

With this document we would like to provide you with a compact overview of VirtualLab Fusion’s theoretical and technological background, in connection with references for a more in-depth study.

  • White Paper (PDF)pdf13.07.2018
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