We provide you with an ever-increasing selection of documents, which should help you to learn more about the potential and the usage of VirtualLab Fusion. You can search* for keywords you are interested in using the Search command:
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Physical optics enables the access to any kind of light information in the desired image plane.

This Demo shows how to use a programmable detector, which can save the simulation result with interested parameter information include in the file name.

In this demo we show how to import bitmap files into VirtualLab Fusion.

Demo the diffraction efficiency of a volume holographic grating is investigated, which was generated by an impinging spherical and plane wave.

In this demo we will show how to import measured chirped mirror data.

In this demo, we introduce a serrated beam apodizer.

We will vary the separation between two fibers and simulate the electromagnetic field behavior on the x-z plane within the computational region.

A phase-only transmission function is designed using the iterative Fourier transform algorithm. As an additional step, a phase-only transmission is designed without any phase dislocations.

In this example, we demonstrated how to model an intraocular lens system using a conical diffractive lens.

This demonstration shows the design of a DOE to widen a gausian into a top-hat shape.

We simulate a lightguide outcouple efficiency using a slanted outcouple grating and an ideal or binary incouple grating.

In this demo we demonstrate a propagation of a Plane Wave through a Luneburg lens.

In this Use Case we demonstrate a propagation of a Plane Wave through a Luneburg lens.

In this demo, we illustrate the Fourier Transforms in an immersion objective system by using stratified media component.

The microstructures are analyzed rigorously in order to calculate accurate diffraction efficiencies for structure sizes in the range of the used wavelength.

This demonstration shows the capabilities of VirtualLab Fusion to calculate higher resonator modes together with their corresponding Eigenvalues.

In this demonstration we show how to import GRIN-Media which are defined after “Gradient 5”-Shema in Zemax OpticStudio®.

In this demo, we show how to import measured lens surface data to VirtualLab Fusion.

This demonstration shows a tool to import nonequidistant sampled surface that are given through lists in a .csv-file.

This Demo shows how to use precalculated efficiency to define a grating in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this demo, we illustrate the workflow of how to import the BSDF measurement data into VirtualLab Fusion.

In this Demo we modeled the light propagation through lenses with a modulated refractive index.

Such metalenses are sensitive to the polarization of the input field and in this example we demonstrate the polarization behavior.

This demonstration shows the possibility in VirtualLab Fusion to include measured GDD-Data to control the shape of a pulse.

In this Demo we seek to model the Moiré pattern in an optical setup.

In the Panel Type Source a uniform grid can be defined, where each point emits a spherical wave. Exemplarily, a uniform grid and a Gaussian profile is shown.

This demonstrations shows the propagation of a gaussian beam for a distance of 10 km.

This demonstration shows the propagation of a field through an uneven pinhole.

In this setup we want to demonstrate a pulse train source that generates pulse trains by constructing a corresponding spectrum (frequency comb).

This demonstration simulates a retro reflector with rough surfaces.

This demonstration shows the reflection of a field on a rough surface.

In this demo we show how to design a diffuser for distinct target pattern for each of the RGB wavelengths. Furthermore, we will generate a Lightguide setup for guiding and separated outcoupling of the RGB modes.

In this Demo we seek to simulate the interference pattern in a Sagnac interferometer setup.

In this demo we will model the moth-eye structure by a random (statistical) distribution of cones. For this purpose, the Random Cone Interface is used.

Product Sheets

VirtualLab Fusion can run in batch mode and thus enable cross-platform simulations when used alongside other software tools.

How to couple light into optical fibers with high efficiency is of great concern for many applications, e.g., in telecommunication, remote sensing, and lasers.

Gratings are important in modern optics. Subwave- and Metastructures require vectorial electromagnetic methods. VirtualLab Fusion provides full solutions.

VirtualLab Fusion provides a complete workflow for diffractive-lens and HOE design.

The summer release 2019 of VirtualLab Fusion enables their inclusion in systems and therefore the evaluation of overall performance.

The VirtualLab AR & VR Solution Package is the only commercially available single-platform software that provides physical-optics modeling of AR & VR lightguides.

Metalenses and metasurfaces have risen to scientific fame by virtue of their unique properties for manipulation of electromagnetic fields, and nowadays their fabrication has become feasible.

Modern interferometers often consist of light sources with various coherence properties, and different components. VirtualLab Fusion is a unified platform for the modeling of such complex systems based on physical optics and with a user-friendly interface.


In this work we discuss a rigorous k-domain (spatial frequency domain) method for fast calculation of electromagnetic fields propagating through GRIN media.

We introduce the concept of geometric and diffractive zones of fields and demonstrate design techniques for different applications of light shaping.

A lightguide in combination with grating regions is definitely a good candidate and we will discuss the concept and our current strategies to deal with them.

We present the connection of the two specific solvers mentioned above in the context of a field-tracing approach.

Metasurfaces that are composed of nanopillars with high refractive indices have great potential in different applications. e.g. the LiDAR systems

Lightguide-based near-eye display devices are drawing much interest recently, and one of the key technologies are coupling gratings for the planar lightguide.

VirtualLab Fusion, unlike most other optical simulation software, enables the complete workflow within a single software platform in a seamless manner.

The Local Plane Interface Approximation (LPIA) algorithm, a free space propagation algorithm and the Fourier Modal Method (FMM) are all combined.

Based on the concept of fast physical optics, we develop a theory to efficiently propagate the field in GRIN media, including the effect of polarization cross-talk.

Advanced microscopy is often designed with physical-optics principles involved and they are used for the investigation of more complicated effects/phenomena.

We perform a fast-physical optics modeling of two-photon microscopy with 3D-structured illumination.

For applications in the field of XR, devices based on light guiding are to combine the virtual image with the light impinging from the real-world environment.

We demonstrate several classical physical optics effects: diffraction from slits, Talbot effect, Arago spot, Michelson/Mach-Zehnder/Young’s interferometers ...

We emphasize on highly efficient solutions to Maxwell’s equations, based on 1) the paradigm shift of switching the main modeling domain from space to spatial frequency domain; 2) innovative Fourier transform concepts that minimize the field sampling parameters. We will present simulations of several typical modern laser systems based on fast physical optics modeling.

Traditionally, ray- and physical-optics approaches are separated in optical modeling and design. We present a unified modeling theory which is fully based on physical optics, but which also enables a seamless transition into the geometrical branch of physical optics where mathematically justified. This theory is applied to the modeling and design of light shaping systems. We show how established design techniques can be understood as particular cases of the unified theory. The unified concept provides flexible design approaches which combine the best of known techniques and even go beyond them.

In this work, the field tracing tech niques for modeling light-shaping systems are presented, which reveals the optical element resulted from those geometric-base algorithm is not always accurate enough for the design task.

After a brief introduction of the fast physical optics technology we demonstrate various examples from different fields of application.

We present a physical-optics-based approach to deal with the modeling of the whole diffractive-/metasurfaces.

A physical-optics-based approach to deal with the modeling of metasurfaces, with a locally extended rigorous analysis of several unit cells...

Diffractive and meta-lenses in optical systems play an important role in various applications like imaging systems, laser-beam shaping, bio/medical-optics, etc.

We discuss the implications of the optical design of diffractive and refractive freeform surfaces in non-paraxial regions of the fields.

In non-sequential simulations with ray and field tracing the user can control which light-propagation paths are to be considered.

Confocal microscopy has good imaging performance. We perform the physical-optics modeling of the real condenser lens system with full vectorial effects.

We present the theoretical derivation and the numerical implementation. We illustrate its potential with examples.

Physical-optics system modeling can be performed by connecting different field solvers, which are selected to efficiently solve Maxwell’s equations...

In this talk the modeling of systems for femtosecond pulses is presented, including pulse compression and stretching by grating pairs...

VirtualLab Fusion supports light shapping by freeform surfaces, diffractive beam splitters and general arrays of micro-optical components...

In this work, we start with the optimization of coupling gratings for a single incident direction and analyze the effect when such optimized gratings are used in different situations.

Lightguide structures are widely applied in different applications, and, nowadays, the are drawing special interest in the field of near-to-eye display systems. Such systems are typically realized with either planar or curved lightguides together with gratings for coupling light out of or into the lightguides.

Though ray tracing gives insight also in the case of lightguides. VirtualLab Fusion we provide such a modeling approach for AR/MR, FOV.

Based on interferometers, optical setups play an important role in modern optical metrology for different applications and various tasks.

We obtain a physical-optics solution which reveals, in an isolated manner, all the effects which we know must appear, and dispel the geometrical-phyisical optics dichotomy in our understanding of the Gouy phase.

In this work, we investigate the coupling of electromagnetic fields into fiber and similar micro-optics structures, and especially, we perform tolerance analysis of given system with respect to shift and tilt of the fiber and micro-optical sensors.

In modern optics, a huge variety of components with specific purposes made from different materials are employed. Birefringent materials are often used for manipulating light in difference aspects. Especially, by analysis in the spatial frequency domain, the effect from birefringence can be clearly revealed and, based on that, we develop a fast numerical algorithm to model light propagation through such components.

A diffractive or meta-lens can be modeled as local structures (e.g. local gratings) on a base interface. The rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM) is applied for the local micro-/nanostructures; then the phase modulations at each position can be collected to model the lens function.

Interferometer-based setups play an very important role in modern optical metrology for different tasks.

With many modern applications requiring or benefitting from high-packaged energy delivered in a very short amount of time, ultrashort pulse sources acquire more and more interest. To focus on such kind of source, proper handling of the spatial and temporal distribution, as well as a possible coupling amongst the two domains is required.

Modern interferometer-based optical-metrology technologies play an important role in many applications, and often consist of multi-disciplinary components. We present a physical-optics- based simulation approach.

Optical fibers are often used to detect and monitor light signals in modern optical Metrology systems. The use of optical fibers helps to reduce the size of the optical system and makes the facilitate interconnection between systems.

Optical fibers are widely used for collecting and monitoring light signals in modern optical metrology systems. The use of fibers helps reduce the size of optical system and makes the interconnection between systems convenient.

We show how techniques are related to each other and how they can be used to improve maximum efficiency for non-paraxial illumination by laser beams.

The Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm constitutes the backbone for fast physical optics modelling. In this talk we present the theory of the semi-analytical FFT alongside several examples to demonstrate the great potential of this approach.

We discuss the use of miniaturized freeform surfaces in regular and randomized arrays. Furthermore, the inclusion of diffraction at the edges of the array cells is discussed and demonstrated at the example of a microlens array.

The modeling of the pulses starts with a temporal Fourier transform which convert the temporal signal into correlated spectral modes, so that the material dispersion effects can be included. Each spectral mode is polarized and therefore vectorial electromagnetic field information can be considered.

Numerous parameters must be considered in order to design a functional AR/MR device which provides sufficient image quality and optical performance.

Gratings for coupling light into or out of lightguides for near-to-eye display systems are optimized regarding the angular dependency of the field of view.

In this talk we will discuss the modeling and design of laser systems along applications like beam delivery and scanning, speaking also about the peculiarities of including gratings, etalons, graded-index media and crystals in said systems.

The well-established ray-tracing concept of Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function, used traditionally to model the scattering of rays at micro-structured surfaces, serves as the inspiration for what we have called “bidirectional”, or B, operators: a physical-optics generalization that refers not only to the modelling of surface scattering, but of any component in an optical system.

Geometrical and physical optics tend to be presented as completely separate from each other, the links between the two tenuously acknowledged at best. However, when they are viewed for what they are it is evident that not only are they not separate, but that in fact the two types of behaviours very often coexist within the same system.

Technology Whitepapers

VirtualLab Fusion enables fast physical-optics system modeling by connecting different solvers instead of applying one universal solver to the entire system.

The numerical accuracy of physical optics simulations is controlled by the numerical parameters of each solver, the sampling accuracy of the fields...

The FMM/RCWA solver consists of an eigenmode solver for each periodically modulated layer and an S-matrix, in the spatial frequency domain (k domain).

VirtualLab Fusion provides fast physical-optics modeling by connecting different field solvers.

The Fresnel matrix solver consists of an eigenmode solver for the homogeneous media on both sides of the interface and matching of the boundary conditions.

In ray tracing for lens systems the rays are originated in the object points and the specific selection is often done with respect to the stop...

We have started to enable the optional decomposition of a master region into subregions in x-domain which form the entrance to subchannels.

The idealized grating function works without any information about the actual shape of the grating structure.

The idealized lens functions works without the knowledge about actual lens surfaces and material.

The layer matrix solver consists of an eigenmode solver for each homogeneous layer and an S-matrix for matching the boundary conditions at all the interfaces.

The LLGA solver assumes local plane wave and local linear grating interactions (x domain), using either the FMM/RCWA or TEA for the grating analysis.

Local Plane Interface Approximation (LPIA) solver work in the spatial domain (x domain) with an approximate local boundary condition.

The RK-BPM solves the electromagnetic field propagation problem in a GRIN medium, by solving two ordinary differential equations simultaneously.

We, the developers of VirtualLab Fusion, do not understand ray and physical optics as two disjunct modeling techniques between which the user must select...

Physical-optics modeling in VirtualLab Fusion is initialized by the light path finder algorithm, which searches for all possible light paths through the system...

One key technique for fast physical-optics modeling with VirtualLab Fusion is the channel concept which enables connecting solvers.

No description available.

Use Cases

With the System: 3D view documents the user can have a quick overview on how the system actually looks like.

Different types of wavefront aberrations are selected exemplarily, and the resulting focal spots are investigated for varying strength of the aberrations.

In this use case we demonstrate how the shape of a set of modes generated by either a step- or graded-index fiber.

A solar cell based on copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS) is simulated, and the absorption in the CIGS layer calculated.

This use case shows how to overlay a point cloud (e.g. a dot diagram) onto another result document (e.g. an electromagnetic field result).

Graphics Add-Ons are a tool inside VirtualLab Fusion that allows the overlay of information, such as regions, onto a Data Array.

Coated slanted gratings can be configured easily within VirtualLab. This use case explains the available options for the customization of slanted gratings.

By placing a rotated rectangular aperture behind input fields with different sizes, the PSF and MTF in the focal plane are investigated.

An imaging system consisting of a collimation objective and human eye is modeled, and by changing the illumination conditions, the cases with fully and partially illuminated apertures are investigated.

When a linearly polarized Gaussian beam is focused by a high-NA aspheric lens, the PSF in focal plane shows asymmetry due to vectorial effects.

This use case explains the configuration and usage of the Microlens Array component in VirtualLab Fusion.

Within VirtualLab Fusion, we demonstrate the analyze afocal systems for the generation of laser guide stars, and further optimize the system to control the size of the artificial stars.

We demonstrate how to analyze the polarization-dependent property of binary gratings rigorously, also to optimize the binary structures to obtain polarization-independent high diffraction efficiency.

An Offner system that consists of two concentric spherical mirrors is built up and its imaging property is investigated by using the non-sequential field tracing in VirtualLab.

The Fourier modal method (FMM) can be used to analyze grating efficiencies rigorously in VirtualLab Fusion.

Using the rigorous FMM / RCWA, we simulate CMOS sensor with pixel size equal to or below 2µm, and especially, the effectiveness of the microlenses is investigated.

For a folded waveguide-based imaging system, the multiple apertures effect, including in- and outcoupling gratings and pupil aperture, is shown to affect the PSF and MTF on image plane.

To evaluate the image quality of a near-to-eye display system, it is important to include the influence from the waveguide structure. In this example, both planar and curved waveguide are investigated.

It is demonstrated that the PSF is distorted due to the aberration caused by off-axis imaging.

It is demonstrated that the PSFs have different shapes when the orientation of the dipole source changes.

Different slanted grating geometries are selected from literature, with varying slant angle, fill factor, and modulation depth, and the diffraction efficiencies are calculated with the Fourier modal method (FMM).

High-NA objective lenses are widely used in optical lithography, microscopy, etc. Consideration of the vectorial nature of light in the simulation of the focusing is of great importance.

We construct an angular-filtering volume grating and apply it in a system to suppress the undesired higher diffraction orders from a beam splitting DOE.

A very typical detector within VirtualLab Fusion is the camera detector which generates a chromatic fields set. This use case demonstrates how easy it is to convert a set of chromatic fields sets into an animation from a parameter run.

In VirtualLab, the variation of parameters in an optical system is freely customizable using the programmable mode of the Parameter Run feature. We use a specific example to illustrate the application of this programmable mode.

VirtualLab Fusion provides a unified free-space propagation concept in the k-domain, together with automatic selection of proper Fourier transform techniques.

In this example, we demonstrate how the Parameter Coupling feature of VirtualLab Fusion can be applied in order to automatize the positioning of a detector with respect to other parameters in the system.

We use a HOE that combines the lens and axicon function to generate Bessel beam from the output of a single-mode fiber.

Have a look at the simulation of birefringence in VirtualLab Fusion and investigates the dependence of the effect on input polarization and crystal thickness.

Non-sequential field tracing is done with two steps in VirtualLab Fusion. Firstly, according to an adjustable accuracy factor, the light path through the system is detected. This light path finding can be controlled by the corresponding accuracy factor.

With the flexible channel configuration in VirtualLab Fusion, one can easily control the response of any surface and/or region, to realize the desired model

A hybrid eyepiece with an idealized diffractive lens surface for correcting chromatic aberration is imported from OpticStudio® and analyzed in detail.

By taking a fluorescent microscope as example, we analyze the chromatic effect for the high-NA objective lens, at the emitting wavelength and illumination wavelength, respectively.

Beam apodization plays a key role in the design of high-energy lasers and beam-delivery systems. Thanks to VirtualLab Fusion’s highly customizable environment, a serrated beam apodizer is modeled using a plug-in transmission function.

It is demonstrated that the fringe contrast in a Michelson interferometer with a light source of certain bandwidth varies when the optical path difference changes.

High-power laser diodes often exhibit asymmetric divergence and astigmatism. Collimation of such a laser diode is investigated with both ray tracing and field tracing.

We show how to build up a shearing interferometer for the testing of laser beam collimation. By changing the collimation lens system, we observe the change in the interference fringes.

For the task of coupling light into a single-mode fiber, two commercially available lenses are selected, and their performance are evaluated by using the overlap integral.

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer with a coherent laser source is build up in VirtualLab Fusion and analyzed by using the non-sequential Field Tracing.

A complex lightguide system, including a 2D-periodic exit pupil expander in combination with slanted gratings in the outcoupler, is presented. PSF and MTF as well as lateral uniformity are evaluated.

Both Fourier domains (space and spatial frequency) can be used as the domain of implementation for solvers in VirtualLab Fusion. We discuss the implications and analyze the plane surface as a special case.

Compound refractive lenses, which consists of tens or hundreds of individual cylindrical lenses, are used to focus x-ray fields one- and two-dimensionally.

In VirtualLab Fusion, grating structures are configured in a “stack”, which can be constructed with either a sequence of interfaces or special media, depending on the geometry of the grating. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on interfaces is explained. 

In the VirtualLab’s Grating Software Package grating structures can be configured by using a stack. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on media is explained.

In VirtualLab Fusion, complex 3D grating structures can be configured using stacks. This use case is focused on the configuration of grating structures which exhibit two-dimensional periodicity.

This use case gives an overview of the different options and tools a user has access to when working with an Optical Setup file.

The conical refraction from a KGd crystal is demonstrated with the fast-physical-optics simulation technology in VirtualLab Fusion.

VirtualLab Fusion allows for the specification of a graded-index lens in a very user-friendly way. In addition, such index-modulated lenses can be analyzed by ray tracing as well as by field tracing.

Light guides with coupling gratings can be set up in VirtualLab Fusion using the Light Guide component and its flexible region definition.

This Use Case shows how to construct a pyramid-like surface by using the programmable surface in VirtualLab Fusion.

The Parameter Coupling feature of VirtualLab Fusion can be used to link the values of different parameters in an optical setup, which allows the user to establish complex relationships between these parameters. ​

In this use case, VirtualLab Fusion’s visualization capability is illustrated. All users with various backgrounds may configure visualization setting on the GUI level.

We demonstrate how to use MATLAB to access the field solvers in VirtualLab Fusion, and use them together with MATLAB functions for analysis and optimization.

We demonstrate how to use Python to run a parameter sweep for a simulation in VirtualLab Fusion.

VirtualLab provides multiple tools to implement your custom sources, components, detectors etc. For documentation of such customized object the snippet help can be used.

We present a customized detector which calculates the grating diffraction efficiencies over a user-defined incident-angle range, and also delivers the mean value and contrast of the efficiencies.

A module in VirtualLab Fusion is generated to calculate the range of the period of a coupling grating, so as to fulfill the guiding condition of lightguides.

The Czerny-Turner setup – a famous historical example of a monochromator – is demonstrated in this use case, including an further application.

Data is often stored in the form of .txt, .csv, .bmp etc. VirtualLab Fusion supports to import these data forms and store them into Data Array. VirtualLab Fusion supports also to save and load the settings of the import for multiple import sessions.

A flash LiDAR system, consisting of array of sources, collimation lens system, and diffractive grating, is constructed and its working principle is shown in both the spatial and the spatial frequency domains.

We build up an imaging system, use metal-grid gratings as the test objects, and demonstrate Abbe’s theory on image formation with VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document, we investigate the interference of Yong’s double-slit setup with an extended, partially coherent source, and demonstrated the van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

We show how to import an intraocular diffractive lens design from Zemax OpticStudio® into VirtualLab Fusion, model it with the actual binary structure, and optimize the structure height for better performance.

Fourier modal method (FMM) is applied for the rigorous evaluation of non-paraxial diffractive beam splitters, which are initially designed by using IFTA and thin-element approximation.

We design a 2D metagrating for beam splitting. The metagrating is constructed, analyzed, and further optimized in VirtualLab Fusion, especially in terms of the uniformity of the diffraction efficiencies.

Two diffractive diffusers, with continuous or discrete phase, for generating a LightTrans trademark are designed, and their performance is investigated.

Designing of high-NA dot-projection system is of great practical use. In this example, a single phase plate for generating a 24,000 dots random pattern is designed.

With the user-friendly design tools in VirtualLab, a refractive beam shaper for shaping a fundamental Gaussian beam into top-hat profile is designed and analyzed.

The iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) in VirtualLab Fusion enables customized beam splitters design with high efficiency and flexibility.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented.

It is demonstrated that the energy densities at the tube lens and at the image plane are influenced by the diffraction of the aperture in the microscopy system.

This use case demonstrates how the diffracted pattern changes when the reflection-type beam splitter (designed for normal incidence) rotates.

With the advanced propagation technology in VirtualLab Fusion, we calculate the diffraction patterns for apertures with different shapes and study the property of diffraction.

We construct a passive parity-time grating and analyze its diffraction property with respect to selected grating parameters and the polarization of light.

This Use Case introduces the Diffractive Lens Component and gives an overview about its options, settings, and computation method.

No description available.

VirtualLab Fusion provides an analyzer for the distortion of an optical system that yields the standard representation of distortion versus angle.

It is demonstrated that the double helix PSF rotates when there is only a small defocus of the object point.

We demonstrate the effect of different mirror coatings on the characteristics of ultrashort pulses like peak value and pulse duration.

With the Electromagnetic Field Detector the user can access the fully vectorial electromagnetic field at any given plane in the system. We explain here how to handle this detector.

With the perfectly matched layers (PMLs) technique, the interaction between a focused Gaussian beam and nanocylinders with varying diameters is investigated.

This use case demonstrates the basic principles of ellipsometry and illustrates the use of the built-in ellipsometry analyzer in VirtualLab Fusion.

This document shows a programmable module that can export any kind of Harmonic Fields Set into ASCII files.

VirtualLab Fusion can export smooth and quantized interfaces, as well as mirror/prism/grating cells arrays into various file formats, e.g., STL and GDSII file format.

VirtualLab Fusion can export smooth surfaces into various file formats, e.g., STL and other customized formats.

VirtualLab Fusion can export quantized HOE structure into various file formats. It is possible to export the files by a pixelized or polygon approach.

No description available.

VirtualLab Fusion supports the export of optical components specified in the system into various CAD formats. This includes for example the export of lenses, prisms, mirror systems and other components into STL and in IGES format.

The propagation of a 5-fs pulse through seawater is studied in VirtualLab Fusion. The broadening of the pulse and the change in its temporal profile due to dispersion of the material are shown.

In this use case, we reproduce the experiments of Zheng et al. [Opt. Express 24 (2016)] to explore the atmospheric turbulence effects on the coupling efficiency between the free-space optical beam and few-mode fibers.

The field curvature describes the difference between the designed focal plane and the actual focal curve of an objective (lens).

The Field Inside Component Analyzer: FMM enables the user to investigate the distribution of the electromagnetic field inside micro- and nanostructures.

A Fizeau interferometer is set up with the help of non-sequential field tracing technology, and the interference fringes from several different test surfaces are shown.

This use case walks you through the flexible region configuration in VirtualLab Fusion, which allows the user to define variously shaped regions for e.g. light-guide applications.

A laser diode with asymmetric divergence and astigmatism is first collimated and then focused. Evolution of the field in the focal region is investigated in detail.

We demonstrate in VirtualLab Fusion the focusing of electromagnetic fields with properly designed apertures.

This use case shows the focusing of an Ince-Gaussian mode through a GRIN medium representing a thermal lens.

It is demonstrated that the focusing of cylindrical vector beams. The vectorial effects of radially and azimuthally beams are demonstrated.

The focusing process of a 10 fs pulse by using a high-NA parabolic mirror is modeled in VirtualLab Fusion, and both the spatial and temporal behaviors are investigated.

It is demonstrated that the focusing of high order Gaussian-Laguerre beam generates donut-shaped PSF. The size of donut-shaped PSF can be adjusted by different high orders.

The Footprint and Grating Analysis tool allows the optical designer to determine how the light will interact with the various grating regions of the lightguide.

As one of the most fundamental technologies in VirtualLab Fusion, Fourier transforms connect the space and spatial frequency domains. We discuss the Fourier transforms settings at different examples and show the consequences.

This use cases presents the different options users have in VirtualLab Fusion to configure the selection of Fourier transform algorithms.

The Fresnel Effect Calculator to calculate the Fresnel coefficients directly.

A real beam splitter based on Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) is investigated.

With a low-coherence Xenon lamp source, a Michelson interferometer is built up for precise scanning of the surface profile of a given specimen.

This use case shows the variation of the focal length of the thermal lens, as well as the focus beam diameter when the input power changes [W. Koechner, Appl. Opt. 9, 2548–2553 (1970)]. This example is published in [H. Zhong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35].

We demonstrate the generation of optical beams carrying OAM by using spiral phase plates with different parameters.

With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup with two rotatable polarizers, we demonstrate the generation of spatially varying polarization.

Following the idea of T. Wang et al., Appl. Phys. B 122:231 (2016), this use case demonstrates a Sagnac-interferometer scheme to generate vector beam.

Graphics Add-Ons are a tool inside VirtualLab Fusion that allows you to overlay information, such as point clouds.

In this use case, smoothly varied grating parameters are introduced to lightguides for AR/MR applications, by using VirtualLab’s Footprint and Grating Analysis tool. Further, detailed results of the polarization-dependent diffraction efficiencies of the configured grating structures are provided.

This use case introduces the Grating Component in general optical setups, which allows for the inclusion of a wide range of different gratings.

A workflow is presented for how to optimize a grating structure regarding a specified merit function using VirtualLab Fusion and the optimization software optiSLang.

In VirtualLab Fusion, the Grating Order Analyzer can be used for convenient grating diffraction analysis, with results presented in various ways.

We set up a pulse stretcher consisting of two diffractive gratings and investigate the pulse broadening effect induced by the interaction of the pulse with the gratings.

Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors focus the grazing-incident X-ray field into a nanometer-scale spot. In this use case the modeling and evaluation of such KB mirror system is demonstrated.  

In this use case we model the propagation of an X-ray field through a Hartmann wavefront sensor composed by an array of pinholes.

A Herrig Schiefspiegler telescope with two mirrors, but with four reflections in a double-pass configuration, is modeled with the non-sequential ray and field tracing techniques in VirtualLab Fusion.

We demonstrates the usage of user-defined merit functions for the evaluation and optimization of order efficiencies of a diffractive high-NA beam splitter.

In high-NA focusing situations, e.g. with parabolic mirror, it is demonstrated that input fields with different polarizations leads to different focal spots.

A two diffractive beam splitter system for high-NA pattern generation is designed with IFTA, and the system performance is investigated, especially with the non-paraxial splitter analyzed by using FMM.

A holographic volume grating is analyzed by using the Fourier modal method. Both the spectral and angular properties are presented.

Using laterally shifted modes is one possible strategy to mimic partial spatial coherence. In this tutorial we show you how to manipulate the positions of the source modes via programming.

In this feature Use Case different options for the customization of detector results in VirtualLab Fusion are demonstrated.

This use case demonstrates how to import a previously designed real grating structure into the lightguide component and explains the role and handling of lookup tables.

With the panel-type source in VirtualLab it is possible to model a pixelated display, with the pixel pitch and the number of pixels as free parameters for the user to fix.

The scanning source in VirtualLab Fusion defines a multi-mode source that radiates into several pre-defined directions, which is of help for e.g. the modeling and evaluation of a laser scanning system.

In this tutorial we explain the basics of working with the C# Module: one of the most flexible, most advanced programmable items in VirtualLab Fusion!

The Programmable Component is one of the most versatile programmable elements in VirtualLab. Follow this tutorial for instructions on a first contact with this feature!

In this tutorial we show how to work with the Programmable Detector, one of the most versatile customizable elements in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Function, using the example of a cylindrical lens.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Interface, using the example of a simple spherical surface.

In this document we show you how to work with the Programmable Source: a means to define the spatial dependence of a custom basic source mode. We use the Gaussian as an example.

In this detailed tutorial we explain how to create your own custom materials (refractive index with respect to wavelength) in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this detailed tutorial we explain how to create your own custom media (dependence of refractive index on position) in VirtualLab Fusion.

Discover how to create your own custom spectra via programming in VirtualLab Fusion with this in-depth tutorial on the topic, rounded up with a basic hands-on example.

A high-NA microscope for imaging of sub-wavelength grating is build up, and the influences from illumination with linear, radial, and azimuthal polarizations is investigated.

Chromatic fields set are standard documents to show a light distribution in VirtualLab Fusion. This use case demonstrates the options for import and export chromatic fields sets.

VirtualLab Fusion can import the beam files from Zemax OpticStudio®, convert it into electromagnetic field information automatically, and support further propagation of the imported field.

The import of a bitmap file, which contains height data of a microstructure is demonstrated. This example provides a step-by-step explanation of the required workflow in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this use case, we illustrate the workflow of how to import complex material data into VirtualLab Fusion’s material catalog.

VirtualLab Fusion allows the import of optical systems with the full 3D position information and glasses from Zemax OpticStudio®, and provides field tracing for further investigation of the imported system.

This use case illustrates how to import the measured extraterrestrial sunlight spectrum, and how to subsequently employ said spectrum in an optical system.

Ince-Gaussian Modes constitute an additional solution for the paraxial wave equation. This use case shows how to set up this kind of modes.

It is demonstrated that the positions of the stop in a lens system have influence on the PSF, especially in the case of inclined illumination.

This use case introduces the Optical Setup, which can be seen as a virtual analogy to the real-life laboratory in VirtualLab Fusion.

VirtualLab Fusion provides three local and one global optimization algorithm. This use case introduces the associated Parametric Optimization document with its options and settings.

In this use case we demonstrate the change in the effective focal length caused by thermal lensing on a lens. The deformation of the geometry and the steady-state temperature distribution are calculated using Ansys Mechanical and are then imported into VirtualLab.

The ghost image effect in a collimation lens system is investigated, by checking the reflections between uncoated surfaces.

We use the Debye-Wolf integral calculator in VirtualLab Fusion for vectorial focal field investigation with different parameters.

For a diffractive beam shaper used together with focusing lens, the influence from lens aberrations on the system performance is investigated.

VirtualLab Fusion enables the detailed analysis of grating structures, with possible changes in the polarization state of the diffracted orders taken into consideration.

This use case investigates light behind a microlens array. Effects in the near field, focal plane and far field are shown and discussed.

An optical metrology system with a silica spaced etalon is set up to measure the sodium D lines in VirtualLab Fusion.

This use case explains the physical concepts employed in the k-Layout Visualization tool and demonstrates its usage.

A spatial filtering system with a pinhole is modeled in VirtualLab Fusion. We demonstrate how the opening of the pinhole influences the output beam quality.

A Michelson interferometer is set up with the help of non-sequential tracing technology in VirtualLab Fusion, and the interference fringes in different configurations are demonstrated.

The Layout Design tool allows to design a custom “Hololens 1”-like augmented or mixed reality system according to the desired specifications.

In VirtualLab Fusion you can export a summary of all system parameters in the light path diagram into an XML File. This use case shows how to export the parameters and how to visualize the parameters.

As one important issue for near-eye display (NED) design, the propagation of light through waveguide structure with tailored in- and outcoupling gratings can be easily modeled with the help of region and channel concept in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this use case we model a lightguide system that uses 2D-periodic grating structures (diamond-shaped), according to the approach from Patent WO2018/178626 (by Wave Optics LTD).

This use case shows a lightguide system with a so-called “butterfly pupil expansion”, based on patent US9791703B1 by Microsoft.

We offer here an optical setup configured according to Littrow, which furthermore, via some programming, maintains those optimal positions even under a change of wavelength or grating period.

The Fiber Mode Calculator can be used to calculate linearly polarized (LP) propagation modes in a step-index fiber with a single core or graded-index fiber.

We build up a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in VirtualLab Fusion and demonstrate how the tilt and shift of component affect the interference fringe.

Based on selected examples, we show how to construct and configure metagrating structure and materials in VirtualLab Fusion.

It is demonstrated that the contrast of the structured illumination pattern is influenced by the polarization of the incident beam.

With the Mie solution for an electromagnetic plane wave in VirtualLab Fusion, we investigate the scattering effect of spherical particles with different radii and made of different materials.

We design and construct a blazed metagrating in VirtualLab Fusion using square nano pillars, analyze its polarization-dependent diffraction efficiency, and further optimize it.

This use case shows a physical optics simulation of a Herriott cell for gas spectroscopy, including a demonstration with CO2.

This use case demonstrates the modeling of a device of a simple “HoloLens 1”-type layout with a Light Guide component capable of guiding light with a 32° × 18° FoV.

This document demonstrates how a VCSEL array source can be modeled in VirtualLab Fusion.

An image projection system is set up using the panel-type source. The performance of the system is evaluated by observing the spot grid in both the spatial and angular domains.

We model the generation of Bessel beams with axicon with round tip and investigate how the round tip may influence the Bessel beam evolution.

With the non-sequential field tracing technique, the regarding interference patterns are modeled including vectorial effects.

The Foucault knife-edge test is a well-known historical experiment to determine the characteristics of a given concave-shaped mirror. In this use case we model this test for a spherical and a parabolic mirror.

In VirtualLab Fusion, we perform a fully physical-optics modeling of a Graded-index lens system, which includes the polarization crosstalk effects.

A fast approach for light propagation through a GRIN medium, which includes the polarization crosstalk effect, is implemented, and its validity and advantages are shown in comparison with a rigorous solver.

With the help of typical examples, we explain how to model grating within system and discuss topics like alignment of gratings, grating order selection, and angular response setting.

The imaging properties of microlens array with different lens shapes are investigated. Change of the focal spots with respect to aberration of input field is demonstrated.

We demonstrate the modeling of the Talbot effect, a well-known near-field diffraction effect from periodic structures such as gratings.

We illustrate the modeling of interference and vignetting effects at a total internal reflection (TIR) prism. Dependent on the characteristics of the impinging light, these effects are introduced by the narrow gap between both prism parts.

This document demonstrates how to achieve the desired intensity distribution of a specific VCSEL source via parametric optimization of two uncorrelated Gaussian modes with the help of the Multiple Light Source.

A hybrid eyepiece with a real diffractive lens surface is imported from Zemax OpticStudio® and analyzed further in VirtualLab Fusion.

A module is programmed to measure the FFT execution time for a quadratic field with different numbers of sampling points, in float and/or double precision.

By using the non-sequential tracing technique in VirtualLab, the ray tracing analysis of a glass plate is performed.

Gouy phase shift, which is a p phase term, can be observed by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interference along optical axis is constructive before focus, while destructive behind focus.

The vital role of diffraction in the Poisson-spot experiment provided proof of the wavelike nature of light. We perform here a simulation of this key experiment.

This document illustrates the generation of vortex-array laser beams using an Ince-Gaussian source.

A complete wafer inspection system including high-NA focusing effect and light interaction with microstructures is modeled, and the formation of image is demonstrated.

This use case introduces the basic configuration of an anisotropic medium.

In this example, we select one commercially available lens and show how to find the optimal working distance to obtain maximum fiber coupling efficiency by using field tracing.

With the rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM) in VirtualLab Fusion and the evolutionary algorithm in optiSLang, we demonstrate the optimization of a binary grating for waveguide coupling for the desired field of view (FOV).

We demonstrate the design workflow for optimizing a rectangular grating for one specific incidence direction to obtain maximum efficiency for a specific diffraction order.

This use case demonstrates how to optimize a lightguide with continuously varying fill factor of the gratings in the EPE and outcoupler regions to achieve adequate lateral uniformity in the eyebox.

We optimize a slanted grating for waveguide coupling over desired field of view (FOV), by using VirtualLab Fusion and optiSLang in combination.

To ensure uniform multiple waveguide output channels, the outcoupling gratings are optimized, with their efficiencies calculated by the rigorous Fourier modal method.

In this use case we will explain the advanced orientation setting for gratings within a grating region. Currently grating regions are only available within the waveguide toolbox.

With the Fourier modal method (FMM) as the kernel on which parametric optimization a slanted grating is designed to achieve high diffraction efficiency.

In VirtualLab Fusion, users can easily construct a two-mirror laser resonator, and use parametric optimization to design this resonator to generate a desired output mode.

With the parametric optimization in VirtualLab Fusion, the design of a fiber coupling lens with conical surface into a single-mode fiber is presented.

This use case introduces the Paraxial Assumptions tool, demonstrating its options and providing a workflow of how to use it.

A scanning system consisting a dual-axis galvanometer and an aspherial focusing lens is modeled, with the rotation of the mirrors taken into simulation as in the practical case.

With the scanning source in VirtualLab Fusion, we analyze the performance of an F-Theta lens, by measuring the focal spot position deviation and the spot size for different scan angles.

The account different powerful computer system it, performance based parameters are introduced and explained.

This document illustrates the usage of the global options for personalization of the view settings of the VirtualLab Fusion.

With the flexible Fourier transform settings in VirtualLab Fusion, we model the diffraction effect from surface apertures and pinholes in a low-Fresnel-number system.

This feature use case demonstrates the capabilities of the Polarization Analyzer for the analysis and optimization of grating structures.

The conversion of polarization of linearly polarized light in a calcite crystal is demonstrated in VirtualLab Fusion.

This Use Case shows how to visualize the polarization state of light, represented as complex electromagnetic wave in a depictive way.

We construct a binary grating with sub-wavelength structure following the principle of form birefringence and demonstrate its polarization-dependent properties.

To model polarizer used in non-paraxial cases, an idealized model is implemented in VirtualLab, and the effect of a polarizer in the focal region is presented.

In VirtualLab Fusion, users can select which information of position and orientation to be shown. This use case shows how to set up the position and orientation information display in a Light Path View.

We demonstrate the Goos-Hänchen shift for a dielectric slab with weak absorption, by measuring the lateral shift of the reflected beam with respect to the incidence angle.

STED Microscopy describes a commonly used technique to achieve super resolution in biological applications.

This Use Case introduces the Speed vs. Accuracy tool which allows the user to customize global sampling parameter.

This use case introduces the Profile Editor in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this programming example, we present some functions which were used in the Classic Field Tracing engine to propagate an electromagnetic field that was represented in an equidistantly sampled form.

This Use Case introduces the Programmable Medium and shows how to customize your own dispersion Formula.

We show how to use a Programmable Grating Analyzer to access the grating diffraction information, to display it, and to use it for further analysisor optimization.

This example shows how to use Programmable Pulse Spectrum to generate a chirped Gaussian pulse, with the pulse specification given in time domain.

Based on the fully vectorial electromagnetic field information, a Programmable Detector is done for the calculation of the degree of coherence.

Based on the full field information, and together with the Programmable Detector, several typically used merit functions in diffractive optics are realized in this example.

This example illustrate the access on field values in a Programmable Detector via source code, and it calculates the sum of all squared amplitudes on the optical axis including all field components.

A Programmable Detector is constructed for saving a light distribution (harmonic fields set) to the desired file path on the hard disk.

In this programming example we illustrate how to code a transmission function that imitates an opaque screen punctured by two round holes.

An example snippet is presented for defining a double slit function, with customizable slit width and distance in between.

This example shows how to realize an array of micro-lenses on a rectangular grid by using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab.

Gauging the accuracy of a given result is fundamental in science and engineering. In this use case we show you how to program a module to compute the standard deviation between two fields.

This programmable module is designed to be applied to the sharp result of a designed structure, and it will round off the edges according to user-specified values.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Function which defines an arbitrary number of equidistant slits with an arbitrary width and distance.

A convex-plano single lens is analyzed by scanning over the radius of curvature and its thickness with the Programmable Parameter Run in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Interface. Although the sinusoidal surface is provided ready-made in the catalog, we show you how to code it for illustration purposes.

In this example, the generation of sinusoidal volume grating is demonstrated, with the grating period and the refractive index modulation as user-defined parameters.

This document shows a customizable spectral band filter in a system with a Gaussian pulse with a homogeneous spectrum.

A truncated cone structure is generated using the Programmable Interface, with its specifications (height, top/base diameter) as user-defined parameters.

Using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab Fusion, an anamorphic surface is programmed and especially with the surface gradient analytically given.

In this programming example we illustrate how to use the Programmable Function in VirtualLab to create a custom idealised component that performs like an axicon.

This example shows how to use a customized C# module to execute an IFTA design in VirtualLab Fusion.

See how to create a radially and an azimuthally polarized source, experimenting in the process with the programming of light sources and the potential of the Combined Light Source feature.

We investigate the relationship between the broadening of an ultrashort pulse and the dispersion of given materials that the pulse propagates through.

We investigate the effects of subjecting an ultrashort pulse to propagation through a lens with high numerical aperture, in terms of its spatial, as well as of its temporal, profile.

This Use Case demonstrates the characteristics of an ideal SSTF Setup including the effects of chirp.

This use case demonstrates the modeling a compact reflective microscope system with a very high numerical aperture of 0.99 using VirtualLab Fusion’s fast physical optics technology. Further the result is compared to a reference.

Following the Rayleigh criterion, we investigate the resolution of three microscope objective lenses with different numerical apertures.

It is demonstrated that the resolution of a microscopy system depends on its numerical aperture.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup consisting of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating for Sodium doublet examination, is investigated.

With the Fourier modal method and the parametric optimization in VirtualLab Fusion, we demonstrate the analysis and design of anti-reflective moth-eye structures.