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Physical optics enables the access to any kind of light information in the desired image plane.

This Demo shows how to use a programmable detector, which can automatically save the simulation result with interested parameter information include in the file name.

In this demo we show how to import bitmap files into VirtualLab Fusion.

Demo the diffraction efficiency of a volume holographic grating is investigated, which was generated by an impinging spherical and plane wave.

In this demo we will show how to import measured chirped mirror data.

In this demo, we introduce a serrated beam apodizer. Beam apodization plays a key role in the design of high-energy laser systems and beam delivery.

We will vary the separation between two fibers and simulate the electromagnetic field behavior on the x-z plane within the computational region.

A phase-only transmission function is designed using the iterative Fourier transform algorithm. As an additional step, a phase-only transmission is designed without any phase dislocations.

In this example, we demonstrated how to model an intraocular lens system using a conical diffractive lens.

This demonstration shows the design of a DOE to widen a gausian into a top-hat shape.

We simulate a lightguide outcouple efficiency using a slanted outcouple grating and an ideal or binary incouple grating.

In this demo we demonstrate a propagation of a Plane Wave through a Luneburg lens.

In this Use Case we demonstrate a propagation of a Plane Wave through a Luneburg lens.

In this demo, we illustrate the Fourier Transforms in an immersion objective system.

The microstructures are analyzed rigorously in order to calculate accurate diffraction efficiencies for structure sizes in the range of the used wavelength.

This demonstration shows the capabilities of VirtualLab Fusion to calculate higher resonator modes together with their corresponding Eigenvalues.

In this demo, we illustrate the workflow of how to import the customized material data into VirtualLab Fusion.

In this demonstration we show how to import GRIN-Media which are defined after “Gradient 5”-Shema in Zemax OpticStudio®.

In this demo, we show how to import measured lens surface data to VirtualLab Fusion.

This demonstration shows a tool to import nonequidistant sampled surface that are given through lists in a .csv-file.

This Demo shows how to use precalculated efficiency to define a grating in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this demo, we illustrate the workflow of how to import the BSDF measurement data into VirtualLab Fusion.

In this Demo we modeled the light propagation through lenses with a modulated refractive index.

In this demo a lightguide system is modeled, that uses 2D-periodic grating structures (diamond-like shape), which is based on the approach from Patent WO2018/178626.

In this example we demonstrate the polarization behavior.

This demonstration shows the possibility in VirtualLab Fusion to include measured GDD-Data to control the shape of a pulse.

In this example, with the help of the automatic propagation technology in VirtualLab Fusion, we demonstrate the Talbot effect, and with the help of Parameter Run, we visualize the Talbot carpet pattern.

In this Demo we seek to model the Moiré pattern in an optical setup.

In the Panel Type Source a uniform grid can be defined, where each point emits a spherical wave with a certain aperture. Exemplarily, a distribution of 11×11 point sources with a uniform and a Gaussian profile is shown.

This demonstrations shows the propagation of a gaussian beam for a distance of 10 km.

This demonstration shows the propagation of a field through an uneven pinhole.

In this setup we want to demonstrate a pulse train source that generates pulse trains by constructing a corresponding spectrum (frequency comb).

This demonstration simulates a retro reflector with rough surfaces.

This demonstration shows the reflection of a field on a rough surface.

In this demo we show how to design a diffuser for distinct target pattern for each of the RGB wavelengths. Furthermore, we will generate a Lightguide setup for guiding and separated outcoupling of the RGB modes.

In this Demo we seek to simulate the interference pattern in a Sagnac interferometer setup.

In this demo we will model the moth-eye structure by a random (statistical) distribution of cones. For this purpose, the Random Cone Interface is used.

  • Demo (PDF)pdf28.11.2019
  • Demo and sample files in VirtualLab Fusion (ZIP)zip28.11.2019

Product Sheets

VirtualLab Fusion can run in batch mode and thus enable cross-platform simulations when used alongside other software tools.

How to couple light into optical fibers with high efficiency is of great concern for many applications, e.g., in telecommunication, remote sensing, and lasers.

Gratings are increasingly gaining importance in modern optics for various applications. Subwavelength structures including metastructures require vectorial electromagnetic methods. VirtualLab Fusion provides full solutions, from the design of single components to their application in a complex optical system.

VirtualLab Fusion provides a complete workflow for diffractive-lens and HOE design.

The summer release 2019 of VirtualLab Fusion enables their inclusion in systems and therefore the evaluation of overall performance.

The VirtualLab AR & VR Solution Package is the only commercially available single-platform software that provides physical-optics modeling of AR & VR lightguides.

Metalenses and metasurfaces have risen to scientific fame by virtue of their unique properties for manipulation of electromagnetic fields, and nowadays their fabrication has become feasible.

Modern interferometers often consist of light sources with various coherence properties, and different components. VirtualLab Fusion is a unified platform for the modeling of such complex systems based on physical optics and with a user-friendly interface.


In this work we discuss a rigorous k-domain (spatial frequency domain) method for fast calculation of electromagnetic fields propagating through GRIN media.

We therefore introduce the concept of geometric and diffractive zones of fields. We describe and demonstrate design techniques for different applications of light shaping, including smooth and micro-structured surfaces, for different types of sources.

The application of a lightguide in combination with grating regions is definitely a good candidate and we will discuss the concept, challenges and our current strategies to deal with them.

In this work, we present the connection of the two specific solvers mentioned above in the context of a field-tracing approach. We apply it to the simulation of a system for inspection of diffractive optical elements, e.g. gratings, with a high-numerical-aperture microscope.

Lightguide-based near-eye display devices are drawing much interest recently, and one of the key technologies of such devices are coupling gratings for the planar lightguide.

VirtualLab Fusion, unlike most other optical simulation software, enables the complete workflow within a single software platform in a seamless manner.

The Local Plane Interface Approximation (LPIA) algorithm, a free space propagation algorithm and the Fourier Modal Method (FMM) are all combined. We analyse the homogeneity of the spot-like illumination interference pattern at the focal plane, which should be accounted for in image processing.

Graded-index (GRIN) media are widely used for different situations. Modelling electromagnetic field propagation in GRIN media is of high importance for optical simulation and design. Based on the concept of fast physical optics, we develop a theory to efficiently propagate the field in GRIN media, including the effect of polarization cross-talk.

In addition to the early-stage microscopy setups, those advanced microscopy in modern optics are often designed with more physical-optics principles involved and they are used for the investigation of more complicated effects/phenomena.

We perform a fast-physical optics modeling of two-photon microscopy with 3D-structured illumination.

In particular, we show how various techniques are related to each other and how they can be used to improve maximum efficiency, uniformity of the intensity distribution and to minimize the zeroth order for non-paraxial illumination by laser beams.

For applications in the field of XR, devices based on light guiding are one beneficial approach to combine the virtual image with the light impinging from the real-world environment.

With the help of VirtualLab, we will demonstrate several classical physical optics effects, for example, diffraction from slits, Talbot effect, Arago spot (Poisson’s spot), Michelson/Mach-Zehnder/Young’s interferometers, Gouy phase shift, Goos-Hänchen shift, and so on.

We emphasize on highly efficient solutions to Maxwell’s equations, based on 1) the paradigm shift of switching the main modeling domain from space to spatial frequency domain; 2) innovative Fourier transform concepts that minimize the field sampling parameters. We will present simulations of several typical modern laser systems based on fast physical optics modeling.

In this work, the field tracing tech niques for modeling light-shaping systems are presented, which reveals the optical element resulted from those geometric-base algorithm is not always accurate enough for the design task.

After a brief introduction of the fast physical optics technology we demonstrate various examples from different fields of application.

We will present a physical-optics-based approach to deal with the modeling of the whole diffractive-/metasurfaces, by decomposing the input field into numbers of sub-fields and studying the interaction of each sub-field with a local extension of the surface.

We will present a physical-optics-based approach to deal with the modeling of the whole metasurfaces, with a locally extended rigorous analysis of several unit cells so to include possible coupling effects, while the computational efficiency remains high.

The growing importance of diffractive and meta-lenses in modern optical systems makes it vital to investigate and understand their capabilities. They play an important role in various applications like imaging systems, laser-beam shaping, bio/medical-optics, etc.

We discuss the implications of the modeling and the design of diffractive and refractive freeform surfaces in non-paraxial regions of the fields to shape the profile of a laser beam in its far field, its focus or any other region.

VirtualLab Fusion provides different approaches for non-sequential simulations through the entirety or part of an optical system. In non-sequential simulations with both ray and field tracing the user can control which light-propagation paths are to be considered.

Confocal microscopy is widely used in both materials science and life sciences. It has good imaging performance due to the filtering of background noise. In this work, we perform the physical-optics modeling of the real condenser lens system with inclusion of full vectorial effects.

We present the theoretical derivation and the numerical implementation. We illustrate its potential with examples.

Physical-optics system modeling can be performed by connecting different rigorous and approximated field solvers, which are selected to efficiently solve Maxwell’s equations in the individual mathematical regions into which a system can be torn.

In this talk the modeling of systems for femtosecond pulses is presented, including pulse compression and stretching by grating pairs, focusing by low and high NA systems, walk-off effects and second-harmonic generation (SHG) modeling.

VirtualLab Fusion supports light shapping by freeform surfaces, diffractive beam splitters and pattern generators, diffusers, and general arrays of micro-optical components, including, but not limited to, micro-lens arrays.

In this work, we start with the optimization of coupling gratings for a single incident direction and analyze the effect when such optimized gratings are used in different situations.

Lightguide structures are widely applied in different applications, and, nowadays, the are drawing special interest in the field of near-to-eye display systems. Such systems are typically realized with either planar or curved lightguides together with gratings for coupling light out of or into the lightguides.

Though ray tracing gives insight also in the case of lightguides, an analysis which includes all relevant effects must be based on a physical-optics approach which is fast and user-friendly. With the Fast Physical Optics technique in our software VirtualLab Fusion we provide such a modeling approach.

Interferometer-based optical setups play an important role in modern optical metrology for different applications.

We obtain a physical-optics solution which reveals, in an isolated manner, all the effects which we know must appear, and dispel the geometrical-phyisical optics dichotomy in our understanding of the Gouy phase.

In this work, we investigate the coupling of electromagnetic fields into fiber and similar micro-optics structures, and especially, we perform tolerance analysis of given system with respect to shift and tilt of the fiber and micro-optical sensors.

In modern optics, a huge variety of components with specific purposes made from different materials are employed. Birefringent materials are often used for manipulating light in difference aspects. Especially, by analysis in the spatial frequency domain, the effect from birefringence can be clearly revealed and, based on that, we develop a fast numerical algorithm to model light propagation through such components.

A diffractive or meta-lens can be modeled as local structures (e.g. local gratings) on a base interface. The rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM) is applied for the local micro-/nanostructures; then the phase modulations at each position can be collected to model the lens function.

Interferometer-based optical setups play an important role in modern optical metrology for different applications.

Modern interferometer-based optical-metrology technologies play an important role in many applications, and often consist of multi-disciplinary components. We present a physical-optics- based simulation approach.

Optical fibers are widely used for collecting and monitoring light signals in modern optical metrology systems. The use of fibers helps reduce the size of optical system and makes the interconnection between systems convenient.

Optical fibers are widely used for collecting and monitoring light signals in modern optical metrology systems. The use of fibers helps reduce the size of optical system and makes the interconnection between systems convenient.

The Fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm constitutes the backbone for fast physical optics modelling. In this talk we present the theory of the semi-analytical FFT alongside several examples to demonstrate the great potential of this approach.

We discuss the use of miniaturized freeform surfaces in regular and randomized arrays. Furthermore, the inclusion of diffraction at the edges of the array cells is discussed and demonstrated at the example of a microlens array.

The modeling of the pulses starts with a temporal Fourier transform which convert the temporal signal into correlated spectral modes, so that the material dispersion effects can be included. Each spectral mode is polarized and therefore vectorial electromagnetic field information can be considered.

Numerous parameters must be considered in order to design a functional AR/MR device which provides sufficient image quality and optical performance.

Gratings for coupling light into or out of lightguides for near-to-eye display systems are optimized regarding the angular dependency of the field of view.

In this talk we will discuss the modeling and design of laser systems along applications like beam delivery and scanning, speaking also about the peculiarities of including gratings, etalons, graded-index media and crystals in said systems.

The well-established ray-tracing concept of Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Function, used traditionally to model the scattering of rays at micro-structured surfaces, serves as the inspiration for what we have called “bidirectional”, or B, operators: a physical-optics generalization that refers not only to the modelling of surface scattering, but of any component in an optical system.

Geometrical and physical optics tend to be presented as completely separate from each other, the links between the two tenuously acknowledged at best. However, when they are viewed for what they are it is evident that not only are they not separate, but that in fact the two types of behaviours very often coexist within the same system.

Technology Whitepapers

VirtualLab Fusion provides fast physical-optics modeling. In this paper we present the five basic ideas on how to achieve fast simulations in physical optics.

The FMM/RCWA solver consists of an eigenmode solver for each periodically modulated layer and an S-matrix for matching the boundary conditions, in the spatial frequency domain (k domain).

The Fresnel matrix solver consists of an eigenmode solver for the homogeneous media on both sides of the interface and matching of the boundary conditions, in the spatial frequency domain (k domain).

The idealized grating function works without any information about the actual shape of the grating structure. It calculates the position (in the k domain) of the diffraction orders from the period, and the effective B-matrix according to the desired diffraction efficiencies.

The idealized lens functions works without the knowledge about actual lens surfaces and material. It defines the lens functions in both focusing and collimation modes, and with three different lens function types available.

The layer matrix solver consists of an eigenmode solver for each homogeneous layer and an S-matrix for matching the boundary conditions at all the interfaces, in the spatial frequency domain (k domain).

The LLGA solver assumes local plane wave and local linear grating interactions in the spatial domain (x domain), using either the FMM/RCWA or TEA for the grating analysis.

The LPIA solver works in the spatial domain (x domain) with an approximate local boundary condition, that assumes a local plane wave interaction with local plane interface.

The RK-BPM solves the electromagnetic field propagation problem in a GRIN medium, by solving two ordinary differential equations simultaneously.

VirtualLab Fusion provides fast physical-optics modeling by connecting different field solvers. Some of them are formulated in the space domain and others in the Fourier domain. Each component comes with a solver and calls for the fields in the output planes of other solvers.

Use Cases

Coated slanted gratings can be configured easily within VirtualLab. This use case explains the available options for the customization of slanted gratings.

By placing a rotated rectangular aperture behind input fields with different sizes, the PSF and MTF in the focal plane are investigated.

An imaging system consisting of a collimation objective and human eye is modeled, and by changing the illumination conditions, the cases with fully and partially illuminated apertures are investigated.

When a linearly polarized Gaussian beam is focused by a high-NA aspheric lens, the PSF in focal plane shows asymmetry due to vectorial effects.

Within VirtualLab Fusion, we demonstrate the analyze afocal systems for the generation of laser guide stars, and further optimize the system to control the size of the artificial stars.

We demonstrate how to analyze the polarization-dependent property of binary gratings rigorously, also to optimize the binary structures to obtain polarization-independent high diffraction efficiency.

An Offner system that consists of two concentric spherical mirrors is built up and its imaging property is investigated by using the non-sequential field tracing in VirtualLab.

The Fourier modal method (FMM) can be used to analyze grating efficiencies rigorously in VirtualLab Fusion.

Using the rigorous FMM / RCWA, we simulate CMOS sensor with pixel size equal to or below 2µm, and especially, the effectiveness of the microlenses is investigated.

For a folded waveguide-based imaging system, the multiple apertures effect, including in- and outcoupling gratings and pupil aperture, is shown to affect the PSF and MTF on image plane.

To evaluate the image quality of a near-to-eye display system, it is important to include the influence from the waveguide structure. In this example, both planar and curved waveguide are investigated.

Different slanted grating geometries are selected from literature, with varying slant angle, fill factor, and modulation depth, and the diffraction efficiencies are calculated with the Fourier modal method (FMM).

High-NA objective lenses are widely used in optical lithography, microscopy, etc. Consideration of the vectorial nature of light in the simulation of the focusing is of great importance.

We construct an angular-filtering volume grating and apply it in a system to suppress the undesired higher diffraction orders from a beam splitting DOE.

A very typical detector within VirtualLab Fusion is the camera detector which generates a chromatic fields set. This use case demonstrates how easy it is to convert a set of chromatic fields sets into an animation from a parameter run.

In VirtualLab, the variation of parameters in an optical system is freely customizable using the programmable mode of the Parameter Run feature. We use a specific example to illustrate the application of this programmable mode.

VirtualLab Fusion provides a unified free-space propagation concept in the k-domain, together with automatic selection of proper Fourier transform techniques.

With the flexible channel configuration in VirtualLab Fusion, one can easily control the response of any surface and/or region, so to realize the desired modeling schemes.

Non-sequential field tracing is done with two steps in VirtualLab Fusion. Firstly, according to an adjustable accuracy factor, the light path through the system is detected. This light path finding can be controlled by the corresponding accuracy factor.

By taking a fluorescent microscope as example, we analyze the chromatic effect for the high-NA objective lens, at the emitting wavelength and illumination wavelength, respectively.

It is demonstrated that the fringe contrast in a Michelson interferometer with a light source of certain bandwidth varies when the optical path difference changes.

High-power laser diodes often exhibit asymmetric divergence and astigmatism. Collimation of such a laser diode is investigated with both ray tracing and field tracing.

We show how to build up a shearing interferometer for the testing of laser beam collimation. By changing the collimation lens system, we observe the change in the interference fringes.

For the task of coupling light into a single-mode fiber, two commercially available lenses are selected, and their performance are evaluated by using the overlap integral.

In VirtualLab Fusion, grating structures are configured in a “stack”, which can be constructed with either a sequence of interfaces or special media, depending on the geometry of the grating. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on interfaces is explained. 

In the VirtualLab’s Grating Software Package grating structures can be configured by using a stack. In this use case the configuration of grating structures based on media is explained.

In VirtualLab Fusion, complex 3D grating structures can be configured using stacks. This use case is focused on the configuration of grating structures which exhibit two-dimensional periodicity.

With the fast-physical-optics simulation technique in VirtualLab Fusion, conical refraction from a KGd crystal is demonstrated.

VirtualLab Fusion allows for the specification of a graded-index lens in a very user-friendly way. In addition, such index-modulated lenses can be analyzed by ray tracing as well as by field tracing.

This Use Case shows how to construct a pyramid-like surface by using the programmable surface in VirtualLab Fusion.

The Parameter Coupling feature of VirtualLab Fusion can be used to define the coupling of different parameters in an arbitrary optical setup, which helps create complex relations of these parameters.

We demonstrate how to use MATLAB to access the field solvers in VirtualLab Fusion, and use them together with MATLAB functions for analysis and optimization.

We demonstrate how to use Python to access the field solvers in VirtualLab Fusion, and use them together with Python functions for further analysis.

VirtualLab provides multiple tools to implement your custom sources, components, detectors etc. For documentation of such customized object the snippet help can be used.

We present a customized detector which calculates the grating diffraction efficiencies over a user-defined incident-angle range, and also delivers the mean value and contrast of the efficiencies.

A module in VirtualLab Fusion is generated to calculate the range of the period of a coupling grating, so as to fulfill the guiding condition of lightguides.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented.

Data is often stored in the form of .txt, .csv, .bmp etc. VirtualLab Fusion supports to import these data forms and store them into Data Array. VirtualLab Fusion supports also to save and load the settings of the import for multiple import sessions.

We build up an imaging system, use metal-grid gratings as the test objects, and demonstrate Abbe’s theory on image formation with VirtualLab Fusion.

We show how to import an intraocular diffractive lens design from Zemax OpticStudio® into VirtualLab Fusion, model it with the actual binary structure, and optimize the structure height for better performance.

Fourier modal method (FMM) is applied for the rigorous evaluation of non-paraxial diffractive beam splitters, which are initially designed by using IFTA and thin-element approximation.

We design a 2D metagrating for beam splitting. The metagrating is constructed, analyzed, and further optimized in VirtualLab Fusion, especially in terms of the uniformity of the diffraction efficiencies.

Two diffractive diffusers, with continuous or discrete phase, for generating a LightTrans trademark are designed, and their performance is investigated.

Designing of high-NA dot-projection system is of great practical use. In this example, a single phase plate for generating a 24,000 dots random pattern is designed.

With the user-friendly design tools in VirtualLab, a refractive beam shaper for shaping a fundamental Gaussian beam into top-hat profile is designed and analyzed.

The iterative Fourier transform algorithm (IFTA) in VirtualLab Fusion enables customized beam splitters design with high efficiency and flexibility.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup, which consists of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating, is presented.

This use case demonstrates how the diffracted pattern changes when the reflection-type beam splitter (designed for normal incidence) rotates.

With the advanced propagation technology in VirtualLab Fusion, we calculate the diffraction patterns for apertures with different shapes and study the property of diffraction.

We construct a passive parity-time grating and analyze its diffraction property with respect to selected grating parameters and the polarization of light.

With the Electromagnetic Field Detector the user can access the fully vectorial electromagnetic field at any given plane in the system. We explain here how to handle this detector.

With the perfectly matched layers (PMLs) technique, the interaction between a focused Gaussian beam and nanocylinders with varying diameters is investigated.

An optical metrology system with a silica spaced etalon is set up to measure the sodium D lines in VirtualLab Fusion, and the influence from the coating reflectance is investigated.

This document shows a programmable module that can export any kind of Harmonic Fields Set into ASCII files.

VirtualLab Fusion can export smooth and quantized interfaces, as well as mirror/prism/grating cells arrays into various file formats, e.g., STL and GDSII file format.

Variation of parameters of an optical system can be done by using VirtualLab Fusion’s parameter run. In this use case the export of the provided results of the parameter run is explained.

VirtualLab Fusion supports the export of optical components specified in the system into various CAD formats. This includes for example the export of lenses, prisms, mirror systems and other components into STL and in IGES format.

The propagation of a 5-fs pulse through seawater is studied in VirtualLab Fusion. The broadening of the pulse and the change in its temporal profile due to dispersion of the material are shown.

A Fizeau interferometer is set up with the help of non-sequential field tracing technology, and the interference fringes from several different test surfaces are shown.

In optical modeling, a finite region is often used as the area for further operation. VirtualLab Fusion supports to generate regions in different manners with great ease.

Several typical wavefront aberrations are selected as examples, and their corresponding focal spots are investigated with varying parameters.

A laser diode with asymmetric divergence and astigmatism is first collimated and then focused. Evolution of the field in the focal region is investigated in detail.

We demonstrate in VirtualLab Fusion the focusing of electromagnetic fields with properly designed apertures.

The focusing process of a 10 fs pulse by using a high-NA parabolic mirror is modeled in VirtualLab Fusion, and both the spatial and temporal behaviors are investigated.

As one of the most fundamental technologies in VirtualLab Fusion, Fourier transforms connect the space and spatial frequency domains. We discuss the Fourier transforms settings at different examples and show the consequences.

With a low-coherence Xenon lamp source, a Michelson interferometer is built up for precise scanning of the surface profile of a given specimen.

This use case shows the variation of the focal length of the thermal lens, as well as the focus beam diameter when the input power changes [W. Koechner, Appl. Opt. 9, 2548–2553 (1970)]. This example is published in [H. Zhong, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 35].

Generation of Optical Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM)

With a Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup with two rotatable polarizers, we demonstrate the generation of spatially varying polarization.

A workflow is presented for how to optimize a grating structure regarding a specified merit function using VirtualLab Fusion and the optimization software optiSLang.

In VirtualLab Fusion, the Grating Order Analyzer can be used for convenient grating diffraction analysis, with results presented in various ways.

We set up a pulse stretcher consisting of two diffractive gratings and investigate the pulse broadening effect induced by the interaction of the pulse with the gratings.

A Herrig Schiefspiegler telescope with two mirrors, but with four reflections in a double-pass configuration, is modeled with the non-sequential ray and field tracing techniques in VirtualLab Fusion.

In high-NA focusing situations, e.g. with parabolic mirror, it is demonstrated that input fields with different polarizations leads to different focal spots.

A two diffractive beam splitter system for high-NA pattern generation is designed with IFTA, and the system performance is investigated, especially with the non-paraxial splitter analyzed by using FMM.

Using laterally shifted modes is one possible strategy to mimic partial spatial coherence. In this tutorial we show you how to manipulate the positions of the source modes via programming.

With the panel-type source in VirtualLab it is possible to model a pixelated display, with the pixel pitch and the number of pixels as free parameters for the user to fix.

The scanning source in VirtualLab Fusion defines a multi-mode source that radiates into several pre-defined directions, which is of help for e.g. the modeling and evaluation of a laser scanning system.

In this tutorial we explain the basics of working with the C# Module: one of the most flexible, most advanced programmable items in VirtualLab Fusion!

The Programmable Component is one of the most versatile programmable elements in VirtualLab. Follow this tutorial for instructions on a first contact with this feature!

In this tutorial we show how to work with the Programmable Detector, one of the most versatile customizable elements in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Function, using the example of a cylindrical lens.

In this document we explain how to work with the Programmable Interface, using the example of a simple spherical surface.

In this document we show you how to work with the Programmable Source: a means to define the spatial dependence of a custom basic source mode. We use the Gaussian as an example.

In this detailed tutorial we explain how to create your own custom materials (refractive index with respect to wavelength) in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this detailed tutorial we explain how to create your own custom media (dependence of refractive index on position) in VirtualLab Fusion.

Discover how to create your own custom spectra via programming in VirtualLab Fusion with this in-depth tutorial on the topic, rounded up with a basic hands-on example.

A high-NA microscope for imaging of sub-wavelength grating is build up, and the influences from illumination with linear, radial, and azimuthal polarizations is investigated.

Chromatic fields set are standard documents to show a light distribution in VirtualLab Fusion. This use case demonstrates the options for import and export chromatic fields sets.

VirtualLab Fusion can import the beam files from Zemax OpticStudio®, convert it into electromagnetic field information automatically, and support further propagation of the imported field.

VirtualLab Fusion allows the import of optical systems with the full 3D position information and glasses from Zemax OpticStudio®, and provides field tracing for further investigation of the imported system.

The ghost image effect in a collimation lens system is investigated, by checking the reflections between uncoated surfaces with the non-sequential tracing technique.

We use the Debye-Wolf integral calculator in VirtualLab Fusion for vectorial focal field investigation with different parameters.

For a diffractive beam shaper used together with focusing lens, the influence from lens aberrations on the system performance is investigated.

VirtualLab Fusion enables the detailed analysis of grating structures, with possible changes in the polarization state of the diffracted orders taken into consideration.

A spatial filtering system with a pinhole is modeled in VirtualLab Fusion. We demonstrate how the opening of the pinhole influences the output beam quality.

A Michelson interferometer is set up with the help of non-sequential tracing technology in VirtualLab Fusion, and the interference fringes in different configurations are demonstrated.

In VirtualLab Fusion you can export a summary of all system parameters in the light path diagram into an XML File. This use case shows how to export the parameters and how to visualize the parameters.

As one important issue for near-eye display (NED) design, the propagation of light through waveguide structure with tailored in- and outcoupling gratings can be easily modeled with the help of region and channel concept in VirtualLab Fusion.

We build up a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in VirtualLab Fusion and demonstrate how the tilt and shift of component affect the interference fringe.

We build an optical setup, with two freeform optical elements, to transform orbital angular momentum (OAM) to linear one, for its measurement.

Based on selected examples, we show how to construct and configure metagrating structure and materials in VirtualLab Fusion.

With the Mie solution for an electromagnetic plane wave in VirtualLab Fusion, we investigate the scattering effect of spherical particles with different radii and made of different materials.

We design and construct a blazed metagrating in VirtualLab Fusion using square nano pillars, analyze its polarization-dependent diffraction efficiency, and further optimize it.

A hybrid eyepiece with a diffractive lens surface for correcting chromatic aberration is imported from Zemax OpticStudio® and analyzed further in VirtualLab Fusion, notably including the modeling of the actual diffractive surface structures with different quantization schemes.

An image projection system is set up using the panel-type source. The performance of the system is evaluated by observing the spot grid in both the spatial and angular domains.

We model the generation of Bessel beams with axicon with round tip and investigate how the round tip may influence the Bessel beam evolution.

We set up optical etalons with both planar and curved surfaces. With the non-sequential field tracing technique, the differences in the interference fringes are investigated.

In VirtualLab Fusion, we perform a fully physical-optics modeling of a Graded-index lens system, which includes the polarization crosstalk effects.

A fast approach for light propagation through a GRIN medium, which includes the polarization crosstalk effect, is implemented, and its validity and advantages are shown in comparison with a rigorous solver.

With the help of typical examples, we explain how to model grating within system and discuss topics like alignment of gratings, grating order selection, and angular response setting.

The imaging properties of microlens array with different lens shapes are investigated. Change of the focal spots with respect to aberration of input field is demonstrated.

We demonstrate the Talbot effect, which is a well-known near field diffraction effect from periodic structures such as gratings.

A module is programmed to measure the FFT execution time for a quadratic field with different numbers of sampling points, in float and/or double precision.

This use case explains the usage of the provided accuracy factors to control the ray and field tracing engine within VirtualLab Fusion with the focus on the setting of non-sequential simulation.

By using the non-sequential tracing technique in VirtualLab, the ray tracing analysis of a glass plate is performed.

Gouy phase shift, which is a p phase term, can be observed by a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The interference along optical axis is constructive before focus, while destructive behind focus.

The vital role of diffraction in the Poisson-spot experiment provided proof of the wavelike nature of light. We perform here a simulation of this key experiment.

A complete wafer inspection system including high-NA focusing effect and light interaction with microstructures is modeled, and the formation of image is demonstrated.

In this example, we select one commercially available lens and show how to find the optimal working distance to obtain maximum fiber coupling efficiency by using field tracing.

With the rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM) in VirtualLab Fusion and the evolutionary algorithm in optiSLang, we demonstrate the optimization of a binary grating for waveguide coupling for the desired field of view (FOV).

We demonstrate the design workflow for optimizing a rectangular grating for one specific incidence direction to obtain maximum efficiency for a specific diffraction order.

We optimize a slanted grating for waveguide coupling over desired field of view (FOV), by using VirtualLab Fusion and optiSLang in combination.

To ensure uniform multiple waveguide output channels, the outcoupling gratings are optimized, with their efficiencies calculated by the rigorous Fourier modal method.

In this use case we will explain the advanced orientation setting for gratings within a grating region. Currently grating regions are only available within the waveguide toolbox.

With the Fourier modal method (FMM) as the kernel on which parametric optimization is then applied, a slanted grating is designed to achieve high diffraction efficiency for coupling light into waveguides. Fabrication tolerances including rounded edges are analyzed.

In VirtualLab Fusion, users can easily construct a two-mirror laser resonator, and use parametric optimization to design this resonator to generate a desired output mode.

With the parametric optimization in VirtualLab Fusion, the design of a fiber coupling lens with conical surface, for efficient coupling into a single-mode fiber is presented.

A scanning system consisting a dual-axis galvanometer and an aspherial focusing lens is modeled, with the rotation of the mirrors taken into simulation as in the practical case.

With the scanning source in VirtualLab Fusion, we analyze the performance of an F-Theta lens, by measuring the focal spot position deviation and the spot size for different scan angles.

With the flexible Fourier transform settings in VirtualLab Fusion, we model the diffraction effect from surface apertures and pinholes in a low-Fresnel-number system.

The conversion of polarization of a linearly polarized light in calcite crystal is demonstrated in VirtualLab.

To model polarizer used in non-paraxial cases, an idealized model is implemented in VirtualLab, and the effect of a polarizer in the focal region is presented.

In VirtualLab Fusion, users can select which information of position and orientation to be shown. This use case shows how to set up the position and orientation information display in a Light Path View.

We demonstrate the Goos-Hänchen shift for a dielectric slab with weak absorption, by measuring the lateral shift of the reflected beam with respect to the incidence angle.

In this programming example, we present some functions which were used in the Classic Field Tracing engine to propagate an electromagnetic field that was represented in an equidistantly sampled form.

We show how to use a Programmable Grating Analyzer to access the grating diffraction information, to display it, and to use it for further analysisor optimization.

This example shows how to use Programmable Pulse Spectrum to generate a chirped Gaussian pulse, with the pulse specification given in time domain.

Based on the fully vectorial electromagnetic field information, a Programmable Detector is done for the calculation of the degree of coherence.

Based on the full field information, and together with the Programmable Detector, several typically used merit functions in diffractive optics are realized in this example.

This example illustrate the access on field values in a Programmable Detector via source code, and it calculates the sum of all squared amplitudes on the optical axis including all field components.

A Programmable Detector is constructed for saving a light distribution (harmonic fields set) to the desired file path on the hard disk.

In this programming example we illustrate how to code a transmission function that imitates an opaque screen punctured by two round holes.

An example snippet is presented for defining a double slit function, with customizable slit width and distance in between.

This example shows how to realize an array of micro-lenses on a rectangular grid by using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab.

Gauging the accuracy of a given result is fundamental in science and engineering. In this use case we show you how to program a module to compute the standard deviation between two fields.

This programmable module is designed to be applied to the sharp result of a designed structure, and it will round off the edges according to user-specified values.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Function which defines an arbitrary number of equidistant slits with an arbitrary width and distance.

A convex-plano single lens is analyzed by scanning over the radius of curvature and its thickness with the Programmable Parameter Run in VirtualLab Fusion.

In this document you can find an example for the Programmable Interface. Although the sinusoidal surface is provided ready-made in the catalog, we show you how to code it for illustration purposes.

In this example, the generation of sinusoidal volume grating is demonstrated, with the grating period and the refractive index modulation as user-defined parameters.

This document shows a customizable spectral band filter in a system with a Gaussian pulse with a homogeneous spectrum.

A truncated cone structure is generated using the Programmable Interface, with its specifications (height, top/base diameter) as user-defined parameters.

Using the Programmable Interface in VirtualLab Fusion, an anamorphic surface is programmed and especially with the surface gradient analytically given.

In this programming example we illustrate how to use the Programmable Function in VirtualLab to create a custom idealised component that performs like an axicon.

This example shows how to use a customized C# module to execute an IFTA design in VirtualLab Fusion.

See how to create a radially and an azimuthally polarized source, experimenting in the process with the programming of light sources and the potential of the Combined Light Source feature.

We investigate the relationship between the broadening of an ultrashort pulse and the dispersion of given materials that the pulse propagates through.

We investigate the effects of subjecting an ultrashort pulse to propagation through a lens with high numerical aperture, in terms of its spatial, as well as of its temporal, profile.

Following the Rayleigh criterion, we investigate the resolution of three microscope objective lenses with different numerical apertures.

A physical-optics-based simulation of Czerny-Turner setup consisting of parabolic mirrors and blazed grating for Sodium doublet examination, is investigated.

With the Fourier modal method and the parametric optimization in VirtualLab Fusion, we demonstrate the analysis and design of anti-reflective moth-eye structures.

With the rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM), we analyze the effects, especially the phase modulation, of nanopillar structures with varying diameters - the building blocks of metalenses.

We apply the Fourier modal method (FMM / RCWA) within VirtualLab Fusion to analyze resonant waveguide gratings rigorously and demonstrate how to check the resonant effects with focused Gaussian beams.

A holographic volume grating is analyzed by using the Fourier modal method. Both the spectral and angular properties are presented.

The scanning mode of the Parameter Run document generates a simulation series of all combinations of specified parameter variations and provides specifically suited output options.

Design of different types of cells arrays, which are used behind white light LED for generating customized patterns, are presented.

When a linearly polarized beam is focused by a high-NA lens, the focal spot shows asymmetry due to the relatively strong Ez component.

When SLMs are often employed as programmable diffractive optical elements, the influence from the pixel gaps on the system performance is investigated.

A complex 2D exit pupil expander, which consist of both idealized and real gratings, is constructed and modeled, and the uniformity at the waveguide exit plane is presented.

Three types of phase gratings are employed in a single grating interferometer for x-ray, and the self-images of the selected gratings are examined.

We model a complete high-NA Fourier microscope system for single molecule imaging. Especially, we show the effect from e.g. Fresnel losses, diffraction due to aperture, and compare the simulation results with the reference.

For optical elements, which cannot be found in the catalogs of VirtualLab Fusion, users are able to create them by using programmable objects, e.g., programmable source, interface, medium and detector. The programming language is C#. The source code editors is the most important structure of all programmable objects. This use case introduces the general structure of the source code editor.

In modern optical systems gratings often appear edged into or deposited onto other elements. Here we cover how to characterise their efficiencies rigorously or by inputting the values ad hoc.

The waveguide component allow to define an arbitrary set of grating regions per surface. Per grating region several parameters can be defined. The user can specify a set of selected orders for each grating region.

By using an idealized non-paraxial polarizer model, the interaction of a polarizer with incident wave from different angles is investigated, and the results are characterized by Stokes parameters.

The stress-induced birefringence in a YAG crystal is investigated, by examining the change of output field with respect to the strength of stresses.

We demonstrate, according to T. Clausnitzer et al., how to build up a pulse stretching or compression system with two transmission gratings. Especially, we analyze the polarization dependency of such systems.

In VirtualLab Fusion the user can design phase functions, which works as beam shaper, beam splitter and diffuser. This use case shows the usage of the structure design tool, which can be used to convert the phase function into a height profile.

VirtualLab Fusion enables the user to build up an optical system once and analyze it with different tracing techniques. This use case demonstrates how the non-sequential analysis of your setup can be performed.

With the region concept in VirtualLab Fusion, apertures with arbitrary shapes can be defined flexibly. Situations with fully and partially illuminated apertures are shown.

A phase mask with a layer of cones is modeled in VirtualLab Fusion. Different Talbot images are detected such that the pillar patterns are in the primary image plane while the hole patterns in the secondary image plane.

We apply both TEA and FMM (also known as RCWA) to analyze two types of gratings (sinusoidal and blazed) with varying period and compare the results from both methods.

In a fiber coupling optical setup, the coupling efficiency is analyzed with respect to tolerance factors like the shift of fiber end position and the tilt of lens.

The polarization-dependent properties of ultra-sparse dielectric nanowire grids are analyzed by using the Fourier modal method (FMM, also known as RCWA).

In the advanced imaging system, when the exit pupils are repeated, uniformity of the energy of these exit pupils is an important merit function to evaluate the quality of the optical system. This use case shows how to use the uniformity detector.

It is shown how to model the effect of unpolarized light, as the average of two orthogonal polarization states, for grating simulation in VirtualLab Fusion.

The Camera Detector constitutes one of the most fundamental detectors in VirtualLab Fusion. Keep reading for an in-depth description of how to configure and use this detector in simulations.

The Debye-Wolf integral calculator in VirtualLab Fusion computes the vectorial field near focus based on an idealized model, when the exact specifications of the objective lens are not known.

VirtualLab Fusion provides an analyzer for the distortion of an optical system that yields the standard representation of distortion versus angle.

In VirtualLab Fusion, the field curvature of a lens component can be analyzed precisely, with the field curvature analyzer used. This use case shows how to set up the parameters in the field curvature analyzer.

The focal length is an important parameter to evaluate an imaging system. By using the Focal Length Analyzer, the effective and back focal length of optical components can be obtained and used with parametric optimization.

Point spread function (PSF) and modulation transfer function (MTF) are important optical quantities to evaluate the quality of an imaging system. In VirtualLab Fusion, PSF and MTF for an imaging system can be calculated fast and accurately.

Using the Parameter Run in VirtualLab Fusion, one can specify the varying range of selected parameters flexibly, so as to perform system analysis, e.g. tolerancing.

An interferometric setup is built up with SLM, apertures, quarter-wave plates, and grating, in a 4f lens system. Using this setup, we demonstrate the generation of cylindrical vector beams.

In lens design, the aberration information in the lens system is important for the optimization process. In VirtualLab Fusion, detectors for different kinds of wave aberration representation are provided.

Wavefront error is defined as the difference between the reference wavefront phase, which is a constant phase or spherical phase, and the detected wavefront phase of one optical system. This use case shows how to handle a wavefront error detector in VirtualLab Fusion.

A Michelson interferometer with a Xenon lamp source is modeled with the spectral property, i.e. limited coherence length, of the source fully considered.

As a demonstration, this Use Case shows the working principle of a typical optical system of the dot projector, including the physical optics modeling of the VCSEL array source, the lens and the beam splitter.

A confocal scanning microscope is built up in VirtualLab Fusion and we used a metallic grating as the test object to demonstrate the working principle of the microscope.

VirtualLab Fusion Documentation

This document describes how VirtualLab Fusion is installed and how it can be updated. Questions which might occur during installation are being answered.

VirtualLab Fusion 2nd Generation Technology Update (Build

In this document you will get a deep introduction into VirtualLab Fusion.


We will explore the possibilities of solving fiber coupling tasks, and learn about the typical workflows in VirtualLab Fusion.

The construction of optical systems combining diffraction gratings and lenses and other smooth surfaces is a common occurrence. We have selected three examples to illustrate in the webinar the potential of VirtualLab Fusion in this field.

The use of lightguides with diffraction gratings has become of great interest in the development of augmented reality and mixed reality glasses. The propagation of light through such lightguides requires simulation techniques beyond ray tracing. It must be possible to include physical-optics effects in a controllable manner to meet the needs in modeling and design. This webinar will introduce you to a suitable physical-optics modeling technology and demonstrate it in the software VirtualLab Fusion.

VirtualLab Fusion provides a seamless workflow for design and analyzing metagratings – from the unit cell (single pillar) selection, the composition of metagratings by using pillars with varying parameters, and the parametric optimization of the metagrating structure for further performance improvement. All the steps can be done in the unified simulation platform VirtualLab Fusion, and, in this webinar, we will demonstrate the workflow above at selected examples.

In this webinar, we show how to enable non-sequential tracing in VirtualLab and application use cases, which get large benefits from it.

In this new webinar series we present the mathematical toolkit that helps make fast physical optics a reality, show how this toolkit is directly reflected in the user interface, and illustrate the impact it has for the average user.

In this webinar we will demonstrate the simulation of a series of interferometric setups in the fast physical optics modeling and design software VirtualLab Fusion, and illustrate some of the features which make VirtualLab a particularly user-friendly and efficient simulation tool for a wide range of interferometers.

We are proud to present a new version of VirtualLab Fusion, in which we bring the connecting field solvers technology to the next level. We completely do away with the tendency that exists of only considering diffraction effects at the exit pupil of the system, in the process enabling the analysis of laser systems, cascaded diffraction, vignetting, 4f setups as well as of any combination of gratings, microstructures, diffusers, and diffractive and metalenses with conventional and freeform lenses.

White Papers

With this document we would like to provide you with a compact overview of VirtualLab Fusion’s theoretical and technological background, in connection with references for a more in-depth study.

  • White Paper (PDF)pdf13.07.2018

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