Virtual and Mixed Reality

VirtualLab Fusion provides non-sequential modeling of multichannel waveguide imaging systems including wavefront error, energy flux and PSF/MTF evaluation as required for VR, AR and MR

In modern display technology, the imaging channel or, in other words, the lightpath from the image panel to the human eye, must be compact while also introducing a lateral offset between panel and eye. In addition, we typically need multiplexing into many imaging channels to provide the image to the eye at different positions. To this end waveguides with gratings are of increasing interest. VirtualLab Fusion enables non-sequential ray and field tracing modeling and design of such devices, including electromagnetic inclusion of grating effects, automatic detection of all relevant lightpaths through the waveguide, and even the calculation of the PSF/MTF for the multi-channel input for any eye position, including the consideration of the partial coherence of the channels.


  • Arbitrary definition of grating regions on waveguide surfaces. 
  • Easy switching between ray tracing and fast physical optics engines. 
  • Advanced PSF/MTF calculation for arbitrarily shaped and fully or partially illuminated apertures, with consideration of wavefront aberrations. 
  • Non-sequential ray tracing informed by a physical optics-based energy concept. 
  • Non-sequential field tracing (physical optics simulation) which includes vectorial, polarization and coherence effects. 
  • Rigorous calculation of diffraction-order efficiencies for grating regions. 
  • Modeling and optimization of high-NA diffractive optical elements (beam splitters) for pattern generation. 
  • Simulation and analysis of high-NA freeform surfaces. 

Selected Topics

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Near-eye displays

Virtual and augmented reality glasses have brought forth a series of fresh challenges for optical designers. VirtualLab Fusion, with its fast physical optics approach, offers the necessary tools to undertake the modelling and design of such devices;

  • ray and physical optics simulations with 
  • both sequential and non-sequential tracing (characterized by easy switching between the two modes)
  • advanced PSF/MTF calculation
  • rigorous model to calculate efficiencies of diffraction orders

are just some of the characteristics that underpin the potential of VirtualLab Fusion when it comes to the modeling and design of near-eye displays. 


Waveguide HUDs

Content for this application is coming soon!

Freeform surfaces

Content for this application is coming soon!

Pattern generation

Pattern generation plays a fundamental role in modern technological advances. Their ability to scan the three-dimensional space makes then an invaluable tool with numerous applications, 

  • in medicine
  • for augmented-reality devices
  • in metrology and measurement
  • as an aid in fabrication and manufacturing

among others. VirtualLab Fusion constitutes a great tool to model, analyze, design and optimize the beam splitting elements necessary for pattern generation devices, taking into account the highly non-paraxial nature of the exercise, including a rigorous model for the efficiencies of the diffraction orders, and with the capability to analyze the role of the beam splitting component in a larger, more complex optical system. 


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