It is established that vectorial effects are non-negligible in high-NA imaging systems, like microscopes. The lens surface and material specifications must, technically, be known in order to take the exact vectorial effects into account. However, such detailed information of most commercial objective lenses is not freely available in general. For such situations, you have the Debye-Wolf integral calculator as one possible way out – it is a well-known idealized model for lens systems which is not restricted to paraxial cases, as it includes the most relevant vectorial effects from high-NA objective lenses.
Investigation of Idealized Vectorial Focusing Situation
We use the Debye-Wolf integral calculator in VirtualLab Fusion for vectorial focal-field investigation with different parameters.