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Design of Diffractive Optical Elements

[May 25, 2018]

 

Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) play a fundamental role in the growing field of pattern generation, and their design demands specific techniques that differ substantially from those employed for other types of components.

The specific techniques employed to design and optimize diffractive elements (like the Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm, or IFTA) are available in VirtualLab, rounded off by the Session ...

[May 25, 2018]

 

Diffractive optical elements (DOEs) play a fundamental role in the growing field of pattern generation, and their design demands specific techniques that differ substantially from those employed for other types of components.

The specific techniques employed to design and optimize diffractive elements (like the Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm, or IFTA) are available in VirtualLab, rounded off by the Session Editor, a convenient guide that takes the user through the design process and which precludes the need for in-depth background knowledge of the method. Automatic checks of the design constraints are included in the process.

Design of Diffractive Beam Splitters for Generating a 2D Light Mark

The Iterative Fourier Transform Algorithm (IFTA) in VirtualLab enables the design of customized beam splitters with high efficiency and flexibility.

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Design of a Diffractive Diffuser to Generate a LightTrans Mark

 
Two diffractive diffusers are designed, with a continuous or discrete phase, to generate a LightTrans trademark. Their performance is investigated.

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Design and Analysis of Laser Systems

[May 17, 2018]

 

Lasers and laser systems play an indispensable role in modern life. They can be found in various applications such as laser material processing, metrology, monitoring, lighting, and so on.

Physical-optics based modeling techniques are necessary for the successful design and analysis of a laser system. With its second-generation field tracing technique, VirtualLab constitutes a suitable tool to perform an efficient ...

[May 17, 2018]

 

Lasers and laser systems play an indispensable role in modern life. They can be found in various applications such as laser material processing, metrology, monitoring, lighting, and so on.

Physical-optics based modeling techniques are necessary for the successful design and analysis of a laser system. With its second-generation field tracing technique, VirtualLab constitutes a suitable tool to perform an efficient evaluation of laser systems. We demonstrate, as examples, the collimation of a laser diode with astigmatism and a laser scanning system.

Collimation of Astigmatic Diode Laser Beam by Objective Lens

High-power laser diodes often exhibit asymmetric divergence and astigmatism. The collimation of such a laser diode is investigated with both ray and field tracing.

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Performance Analysis of Laser Scanning System

A scanning system consisting of a dual-axis galvanometer and an aspherical focusing lens is modelled, with the rotation of the mirrors taken into account in the simulation, as is required in the practical case.

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Sequential and non-sequential field tracing

[May 11, 2018]

 

With the release of the non-sequential extension, VirtualLab is now capable of performing System Analysis with Sequential and Non-Sequential Field Tracing.

This new feature greatly simplifies the construction and analysis of certain types of optical systems, and enables many additional applications.
System Analysis with Sequential and Non-Sequential Field Tracing

The Non-Sequential Configuration can be adjusted ...

[May 11, 2018]

 

With the release of the non-sequential extension, VirtualLab is now capable of performing System Analysis with Sequential and Non-Sequential Field Tracing.

This new feature greatly simplifies the construction and analysis of certain types of optical systems, and enables many additional applications.
System Analysis with Sequential and Non-Sequential Field Tracing

The Non-Sequential Configuration can be adjusted flexibly for various simulation tasks,
Non-Sequential Configuration

e.g., Investigation of Ghost-Image Effects in Collimation Systems,
Investigation of Ghost-Image Effects in Collimation Systems

or Modeling of Etalon with Planar and Curved Surfaces.
Modeling of Etalon with Planar and Curved Surfaces

Thanks to the non-sequential field tracing technique, multi-path optical systems can be constructed and modeled much more conveniently.

Some examples of such systems are the Herrig Schiefspiegler Telescope,
Herrig Schiefspiegler Telescope

Offner systems,
Analysis of an Offner System with Non-Sequential Field Tracing

and interferometers, like the Mach-Zehnder.
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

As a result, many practical applications based on multi-path interference effect can be easily analyzed.

For example, the optical topography scanning with a Michelson interferometer,
Optical Topography Scanning Interferometry

or the Examination of Sodium D Lines with Etalon, are demonstrated in VirtualLab.
Examination of Sodium D Lines with Etalon

Furthermore, non-sequential field tracing plays an indispensable role for the modeling and design of waveguide-based near-eye-display (NED) systems. The folding of light paths and the extension of the exit pupil in such systems,

are achieved with Light Propagation through Waveguide with In- & Outcoupling Surface Gratings.
Light Propagation through Waveguide with In- & Outcoupling Surface Gratings

The same as with the etalon, VirtualLab facilitates the Analysis of Folded Imaging System with Planar or Curved Waveguide.
Analysis of Folded Imaging System with Planar or Curved Waveguide

Learn more about the background of VirtualLab Fusion Technologies.

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Topography Scanning Interferometry and Fabry-Pérot Etalon

[May 04, 2018]

 

As one of the most fundamental optical metrology techniques, interferometry has enabled various applications. We present here two examples of topography-scanning interferometry: one for surface-profile measurement, and the other for spectral measurement with a Fabry-Pérot etalon. Thanks to the non-sequential extension, the optical setups for both applications can be easily configured in VirtualLab. The working ...

[May 04, 2018]

 

As one of the most fundamental optical metrology techniques, interferometry has enabled various applications. We present here two examples of topography-scanning interferometry: one for surface-profile measurement, and the other for spectral measurement with a Fabry-Pérot etalon. Thanks to the non-sequential extension, the optical setups for both applications can be easily configured in VirtualLab. The working principles are clearly demonstrated and visualized, and we show how the non-sequential field tracing technique facilitates the fast and accurate analysis of such systems.

Optical Topography Scanning Interferometry

A Michelson interferometer is constructed, with a low-coherence Xenon lamp as the source, for the precise scanning of the surface profile of a given specimen.

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Examination of Sodium D Lines with Etalon

A silica-spaced etalon is set up and employed in the measurement of the sodium D lines, using the non-sequential field tracing technique in VirtualLab Fusion.

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Multi-Path Optical Systems and VirtualLab Fusion Technologies

[April 26, 2018]

 

Interferometry techniques are widely used in many fields, such as astronomy, metrology, and quantum mechanics. In an interferometer, the incoming light is split into two (or even more) beams. The split beams will travel along different paths which eventually overlap, their superposition generating an interference pattern which can be used for further analysis. Now, with the non-sequential extension, such multi-path ...

[April 26, 2018]

 

Interferometry techniques are widely used in many fields, such as astronomy, metrology, and quantum mechanics. In an interferometer, the incoming light is split into two (or even more) beams. The split beams will travel along different paths which eventually overlap, their superposition generating an interference pattern which can be used for further analysis. Now, with the non-sequential extension, such multi-path optical systems can be easily set up and modeled in a more convenient way in VirtualLab.

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer

A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is constructed and simulated in VirtualLab. We perform an analysis of how the tilt and shift of an optical element affects the interference pattern.

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VirtualLab Fusion Technologies — Collection of Research Papers

As a very innovative software, VirtualLab has experienced major technical developments in recent years. Thus, we would like to provide you with a compact overview of VirtualLab Fusion’s theoretical and technological background, in connection with references for a more in-depth study.

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Non-Sequential Physical Optics in Telescopes and Offner Systems

[April 23, 2018]

 

In our previous newsletter we demonstrated the ghost-image effect caused by the undesired reflection between surfaces in a collimation system. In contrast to that situation, some optical systems are designed to take advantage of the multiple pass between surfaces. We present here two such examples: a Herrig telescope and an Offner system. With the help of the non-sequential field tracing, this kind of systems can ...

[April 23, 2018]

 

In our previous newsletter we demonstrated the ghost-image effect caused by the undesired reflection between surfaces in a collimation system. In contrast to that situation, some optical systems are designed to take advantage of the multiple pass between surfaces. We present here two such examples: a Herrig telescope and an Offner system. With the help of the non-sequential field tracing, this kind of systems can be modeled and analyzed easily and fast.

Herrig Schiefspiegler Telescope

A Herrig Schiefspiegler telescope with two mirrors, but with four reflections in a double-pass configuration, is modeled with the non-sequential ray- and field-tracing techniques in VirtualLab.

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Analysis of an Offner System with Non-Sequential Field Tracing

An Offner system that consists of two concentric spherical mirrors is built up and its imaging properties investigated using non-sequential field tracing in VirtualLab.

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Simulation of Interference Fringes in Collimation Systems

[April 13, 2018]

 

In optical design, it is important to take undesired effects into consideration properly. For example, ghost images due to e.g. reflections from uncoated surfaces may take place in every optical setup, and the influence on the system performance should be examined. With the recently released non-sequential extension, VirtualLab can be used to analyze effects like the aforementioned ghost images conveniently. Via ...

[April 13, 2018]

 

In optical design, it is important to take undesired effects into consideration properly. For example, ghost images due to e.g. reflections from uncoated surfaces may take place in every optical setup, and the influence on the system performance should be examined. With the recently released non-sequential extension, VirtualLab can be used to analyze effects like the aforementioned ghost images conveniently. Via the flexible configuration of the channels for the individual surfaces, as well as of other numerical parameters, the simulation of the system in hand can be adjusted for the analysis of various situations, and to varying degrees of accuracy.

Investigation of Ghost-Image Effects in Collimation Systems

In any optical system there is always stray light which causes ghost images. Stray light may have different origins, such as undesired reflections and scattering. A collimation lens system for high-NA laser diodes is taken as an example. Reflections between uncoated surfaces are studied with the non-sequential tracing technique in VirtualLab, which that the multiple reflections may cause interference fringes in the collimated beam.

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Non-Sequential Configuration: How to Use Simulation Settings for Ray and Field Tracing

VirtualLab can be used to perform ray as well as field tracing. The control of numerical simulations is typically handled through the specification of various parameters. In VirtualLab these often come in the form of accuracy factors. This document explains the usage of the provided accuracy factors to control the ray and field tracing engine within VirtualLab with the focus on the setting of non-sequential simulation.

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Non-Sequential Modeling of Optical Etalon

[April 04, 2018]

 

With the recently released non-sequential extension, VirtualLab enables flexible system modeling in both sequential and non-sequential way, for both ray tracing and field tracing. For a given system, thanks to the channel concept, one can easily switch between sequential and non-sequential mode.

To demonstrate it, we present examples on optical etalon. The simple structure of an etalon forms a resonator, and the ...

[April 04, 2018]

 

With the recently released non-sequential extension, VirtualLab enables flexible system modeling in both sequential and non-sequential way, for both ray tracing and field tracing. For a given system, thanks to the channel concept, one can easily switch between sequential and non-sequential mode.

To demonstrate it, we present examples on optical etalon. The simple structure of an etalon forms a resonator, and the interference due to multiple reflections governs its optical response and functionality.

Modeling of Etalon with Planar and Curved Surfaces


By using the non-sequential field tracing technique, several configurations of etalons, e.g. with non-parallel surfaces and curved surfaces, are analyzed.

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System Analysis with Sequential and Non-Sequential Field Tracing

VirtualLab enables the user to build up an optical system once and analyze it with different tracing techniques. This use case demonstrates how the non-sequential analysis of your setup can be performed.

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Want to give it a try yourself? Get your free trial download!

Design and Analysis of Gratings

[March 27, 2018]

 

Micro- and nanostructures play an important role in optics, with ever growing impact. Gratings, as probably the most important group of such components, have their place in various optical setups as shown in previous newsletters.

In VirtualLab, gratings can be configured conveniently with the help of stacks, i.e. using a special medium definition.
Configuration of Grating Structures by Using Special Media

With the ...

[March 27, 2018]

 

Micro- and nanostructures play an important role in optics, with ever growing impact. Gratings, as probably the most important group of such components, have their place in various optical setups as shown in previous newsletters.

In VirtualLab, gratings can be configured conveniently with the help of stacks, i.e. using a special medium definition.
Configuration of Grating Structures by Using Special Media

With the rigorous Fourier modal method (FMM), different types of gratings – e.g. blazed (sawtooth) …
Blazed Grating Analysis by FMM

… and holographic volume gratings – can be simulated,
Rigorous Simulation of Holographic Generated Volume Grating

and analyzed with helpful tools like the grating order analyzer.
Grating Order Analyzer

The technique applies to both linear and crossed gratings, as in the case of a non-paraxial 7x7 diffractive beam splitter.
Design and Analysis of Non-Paraxial Diffractive Beam Splitter

Vectorial effects are fully taken into account, as shown in the case of the ultrasparse nanowire grid polarizer.
Ultra-Sparse Dielectric Nano-Wire Grid Polarizers

By combination with the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique, aperiodic structures like nanocylinders can be analyzed as well.
Electromagnetic Field Interaction with Nanocylinders

The rigorous FMM is embedded in a global concept that groundbreakingly facilitates the analysis of micro- and nanostructures alongside other optical components, in larger, more complex optical systems.

Examples thereof can be found in, e.g., analysis of Czerny-Turner Setup including a blazed grating,
Czerny-Turner Setup

and modeling of high-NA microscope systems for examining different samples …
Imaging of Sub-Wavelength Gratings with Different Profiles

… or for wafer inspection.
Optical System for Inspection of Micro-Structured Wafer

Based on the FMM technique, the parametric optimization of micro- and nanostructures is enabled.

For example, the optimization of slanted gratings by varying the slant angle, grating depth, and filling factor, is done to obtain efficient incoupling.
Parametric Optimization and Tolerance Analysis of Slanted Gratings

Thanks to the new slanted grating configuration, all parameters of the slanted grating can be controlled with ease and flexibility.
Advanced Configuration of Slanted Gratings

Besides the versatile configuration for slanted gratings, there are more exciting things to discover in the latest release of VirtualLab Fusion: the non-sequential extension deserves a mention of honor.

An example on ghost image in a collimation system is constructed and modeled in a non-sequential manner.
Investigation of Ghost Imaging Effects in Collimation System

More examples on the non-sequential extension will be shown in the coming newsletters!

Want to give it a try yourself? Get your free trial download!

Optimization and Configuration of Slanted Gratings

[March 16, 2018]

 

Slanted gratings are well known for the fact that they can provide high diffraction efficiency for a predefined order. This fact turns out to be of great use in many applications, such as back light, optical interconnectors, and near-eye displays.

In the new release of VirtualLab, slanted gratings can be configured in a very convenient manner, with flexible control of all the grating parameters. As an example, by ...

[March 16, 2018]

 

Slanted gratings are well known for the fact that they can provide high diffraction efficiency for a predefined order. This fact turns out to be of great use in many applications, such as back light, optical interconnectors, and near-eye displays.

In the new release of VirtualLab, slanted gratings can be configured in a very convenient manner, with flexible control of all the grating parameters. As an example, by varying the slant angle, grating depth, and filling factor, a slanted grating is optimized using the rigorous Fourier modal method.

Parametric Optimization and Tolerance Analysis of Slanted Gratings

A slanted grating optimized with the rigorous Fourier modal method to achieve high diffraction efficiency for incoupling into light guiding structures.

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Advanced Configuration of Slanted Gratings

Coated slanted gratings can be configured easily in VirtualLab. This use case explains the available options for the customization of slanted gratings.

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